|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 01|| [++] (02:34) Introductory.
Two year course in Church History in four segments. (07:32) A. Purpose of the Course Positively.
1. See the roots of present Church practice. Essential doctrine vs.
tradition. Tsarina Katherine and her favorite plant. (12:07)
Application: accidental causes in theology. What is vital, and what is
a survival of something in the past that has no importance in the
present. The Burghers and Anti-Burgers. (15:59) 2. See
How God Works in the World. (17:53) 3. See how the Devil works. God
permits the Devil to work. The failure of Protestantism in Poland.
Distortion of Truth. The "successes" of the Devil. (24:48) 4. Observe
the life and struggles
of the great heroes of the Faith. Luther & Augustine. (27:43) 5.
suggestions on methods of doing the Lord's Work. Illustrations
Church History. (30:51) B. Purpose of
the Study of Church History Negatively.
Questions of form and ceremony. (33:47) Does evidence of church
practice in 150 AD tell us anything about how we should worship today?
(36:05) The Lord intentionally left a Gap between the full records of
Acts and the first Church History records. Church History is not the
place to learn God's Will. (36:41) 1. Not to learn
the truth regarding doctrine. Reason for emphasis on Bible Study and
original languages. Learn Doctrine from the Bible. Emphasis on Greek
and Hebrew. (44:24) 2. Not to learn what God wants us to do. The
Bible is the only source. Luther preaching on the way to Worms. We
learn what is true by what the Bible says, not by circumstances.
(47:39) C. Method of
conducting the course.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 02||[++] D. Remarks about Dates. To see relationships among events. (02:30) E. What is History? Show important changes. The principle characters, and relationship to each other. (05:05) F. What is the Church? The body of all the Redeemed of all ages. No particular human organization. An organism: The One Church. (06:58) I. The World into which Christianity Came. How it came about and how the Church developed at the beginning. What was the situation when the Church began? (09:30) A. The Roman Empire. God protected the early church with miracles and special gifts. The Roman Empire was more of a help to Christianity than a hindrance , even in the persecutions. (13:45) 1. The importance of the subject. P rovided a tradition of law and justice in which it was possible for people to have certain rights (Paul's appeal to Caesar). (14:54) 2. How The Roman Empire Came into Being. A gradual growth over a period of 4-5 centuries before the coming of Christ. A constitutional system of law with a great measure of individual liberty. Enabled mobility of people over the Empire -- a foundation that allowed Christianity to spread. (18:19) Gradual growth of citizenship beginning with the little town of Rome, and ending in universal citizenship about 200 AD. At the time of Christ about 1/4 of the people were citizens. (22:50) 3. Its Nature. a. Very strong central power. b. A great tradition of law and personal liberty. (23:50) 4. Rapid Survey of History of Roman Empire. First Century: 2 families reigned in Rome: Julian (ended with Nero in 68 AD) and Flavian. (27:42) Second Century (96-193 AD). "Finest period in history" The p(eriod of the Antonines. Began with Nerva. Adopted son Trajan. Ended with Marcus Aurelius (went back to hereditary system). (32:53) Third Century (193-284) -- Empire in control of the Army. (34:08) Ended with Diocletian and Constantine -- two good men. (36:14) 5. Advantages for Christianity of the Roman Empire. a. Comparative peace and safety. Travel in Palestine safe. (38:18) b. Lack of borders. (40:49) c. Roman Roads. (41:44) 6. Disadvantages to Christianity of the Roman Empire. a. Great importance of the personality of the Emperor. (43:36) b. Development of official opposition to Christianity.||09.4 Mb||51:06
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 03||[+s] (01:51) B. Hellenism -- preparation of the world for Christianity. Helenistic period (03:51) 1.The Achievements of Greece. a. Culture, science, philosophy, art, literature. 400-300 BC (07:45) b. Failure in Governmment. (14:52) 2. The Spread of Greek Civilization and Language. Macedonians. Phillip & Alexander. (18:24) Aristotle tutor to Alexander. Ptolomy, Seleucus, Seleucid empire. (24:05) 3. Advantages to Christianity. a. Existence of a Common Language widely understood. (29:45) b. A fit language for expession of subtle and complex ideas. (33:58) c. Widespread skepticism regarding paganism and longing for something better. (35:23) 4. Disadvantages to Christianity. a. Attachment of lower classes to Greek gods. b. skepticism of anything supernatural. (38:19) C. Judaism. Preparation for the coming of the Gospel. 1. Judaism was represented in all parts of the Empire. Tolerated by Roman government. Many of the Jewish concepts known throughout empire. (41:52) 2. Factions among the Jews. a. Sadducees. Held the high positions in the state. b. Pharisees. Took religion seriously. c. Essenes. (45:23) 3. High Spots in the History of Judaism in the first two centuries AD. a. 70 AD Jerusalem destroyed; Sacrifices ended. (50:00) b. 132 AD. Bar Kokhba revolt. Hadrian attacked and destroyed Jerusalem. Jerusalem was made into a heathen city and Jews could not come within 5 miles of the city.||09.8 Mb||53:04
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 04||[++] II. Church in First
Century. (03:15) A. Political
Augustus (30BC-14AD): Government by Law. Tiberius (14-37AD). Caligula
("little boots") (37-41 assassinated). Some think that certain
statements in the Bible refer to him.
Insane? Murdered. Emperor considered as a god after death.
Caligula considered himself a god while alive. Ordered statue to be
placed in Jerusalem. Daniel prophecied? (13:40) Claudius (41-54)
(See Acts 18). Nero (54-68 assassinate). Burning of Rome. (24:10) First
persecution under Nero. (26:15) Flavian line (69-96). Titus. (28:04)
Domitian (81-96). Second Persecution of Christians. Antonines
(96-192). (29:12) B. Beginnings
of the Church. 1. Period of Great Evidence. Acts.
Revelation (some) (29:54) 2. Importance of the Resurrection. Morrison Who Moved the Stone. (34:12) 3. The
Period of Little Evidence. Aside from the New Testament we know
practically nothing about the church after the first century. 1. How
there comes to be so little evidence. (36:00) a.
Type of writing material (papyrus). (38:07) b. Lack of stimulus to
history. Christians fugitive. (40:15) c. Expectation of the soon return
of Christ. (41:56) 2. Why God allowed such a gap in our knowledge.
3. Traditions about the Apostles. That Paul went to Asia Minor. That
Peter and Paul killed in Nero's persecution. Not known for certainty.
(45:20) 4. The earliest Christian Writings
that can be dated with some certainty. a. First Clement (95-100 AD).
Earliest non-biblical writing that can be dated with some certainty.
Epistle from Rome to Corinth. (48:40) b.
Epistle of Barnabas (70-130 AD) (50:07) 5. Information from
Sources. a. Josephus, History of the
Jewish Wars. Mention of Christ? Harnack asserted that Josephus
actually wrote it.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 05||[+] (00:42) b. Suetonius on Claudius. Roman writer.
Jews stirred up by Chrestos. (01:59) c. Tacitus and Suetonius on
Suetonius Lives of the Caesars.
about Nero: "Punishment afflicted on the Christians." (07:43) Tacitus
one of the great historians: Annals
of the Roman Empire (most lost
today). Only source of information about Nero's persecution of
Christians. "Rumor spread that Nero was responsible for the burning of
Rome. To get rid of this rumor Nero punished a class hated for their
abomination, who are commonly called Christians." Arrested for "Hatred
of the human race." All we know about this came from Tacitus. (14:13)
5. Domitian's persecution of "prominent people" (Domitian Last of the
Flavian line) -- probably
but not certainly persecuted Christians. (18:10) III. The Church in the Second
Century. A. The Roman Emperors. 1. Nerva (98-98). Introduced a
new system for choosing Caesars. Gibbon thought highly of this period.
Period of law, order, peace.
Emperor looks around and picks out the person to succeed him. 2. Trajan
(98-117). Continued Nerva's rule. (22:00) 3. Hadrian (117-138) 4.
Antoninus Pius (138-161) 5. Marcus Aurelius (161-180). Philosopher with
highest ethical ideals. Ended the Antonine line. 6. Commodus (180-193)
worthless son). Septimus Severus (193-) (25:12)) B. Pliny's Correspondence
with Trajan (110 AD). (28:35) Pliny's Letter 96 to Trajan (read
in class 28:41-33:44) Doesn't know why Christianity is a crime.
Letter evidence that Christianity had spread extensively in that area
of Asia Minor. Nobody is coming to the pagan temples. Apparently great
multitudes had converted to Christianity. This was about 80 years after
the death of Christ. First evidence of how Christianity was spreading.
First evidence of Rome's attitude toward Christians. Governor of
Bithynia in Asia Minor. Trajan's reply Letter 97 (35:40-36:22) . Do not
make an all-out effort
to find out Christians. Anonymous accusations should not be
heeded. (39:30) C. Ignatius.
Seven Letters. (50) Describes himself as bishop of Antioch. No evidence
of his background. On the way to Rome to be killed in the arena.
(44:13) What we know about him and his writings. 7 letters. All
we know about him are from these writings. (46:03) 1. His ideas of
Martyrdom. Appears to be an elderly man who had been a leader in
Antioch for many years. Wanted to die for Christ. "I will willingly die
for Christ unless you hinder me." (50:12) 2. His idea
of the place of the Bishop. References for these quotations:
Bettenson's Documents of the
Christian Church. Ayer Sourcebook
for Ancient Church History.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 06||[+s] C. Ignatius. Not known except for these letters. (08:18) 1. His idea of martyrdom. (13:00) 2. His idea of the place of a Bishop. The Bishop is the leader of the churches in a region. In the NT the bishop is used in the plural. Interchange elders and bishops. The role of pastors (elders) and bishops. (21:00) 3. The "Catholic" church -- all believers: no evidence of an organizational hierarchy. Spiritual unity among Christians. (22:54) D. The Apostolic Fathers. Audience Question: Was the Bible combined at this time? Probably not combined in one book until the 4th century, but most Christians knew which books were from the Bible. (27:15) Who were the "Apostolic Fathers"? Generally previous to 160 AD. 1. General Remarks. Early Christian writers came to be called Fathers. Apostolic Fathers is early Christian writers who knew the Apostles. (30:11) 2. Clement epistles 95-100 AD. 3. Papius. No book by Papius preserved. Eusebius quoted at length. Claimed to be disciple of Apostle John. (33:00) 4. Ignatius' letters. (33:30) 5. Polycarp (with Papias a disciple of John). (35:56) 4 other writers much regarded in ancient times: 6. Epistle of Barnabas. Nobody thinks Barnabas wrote it. 80-100 AD. 7. Shepherd of Hermes (Epistle of Barnabas and Shepherd of Hermes in Alexandrinus Codex). (37:51) 8. Didache. 9. Epistle to Diognetus. Christian devotional. (41:00) E. Polycarp. Letter to Silicians. Letter of Church of Smarma giving an account about his martyrdom. Prominent man of whom we know little. [read letter 43:00-50:40].||9.8 Mb||54:52
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 07||[++] Church History Resources: Schapf, History of the Christian Church. F. J. Foakes Jackson, History of the Christian Church (up to AD 461). Joseph McSorley, Outline History of the Church by Century. John Farrow, The Pageant of the Popes. Any good Encyclopedia. (10) 5. Marcion. Rejected by church. (OT God a different sort of God; Jesus didn't really die). Gnostics. (15) G. Efffects of Gnosticism on the Church a. Increased development of idea of one catholic church. (18) b. Forced Christian leaders to think carefully on what were the inspired books. c. Forced development of a clear expression of what the Bible teaches about Christ. (26) H. The Persecution under Marcus Aurelius (161-180). Persecutions in Gaul (France). (39) J. Iranaeus (skipped I.) Became bishop after Portfinus was killed in Lyon. K. Tertullian. first important Christian writer in Latin in North Africa. Many phrases and words in Church today come from Tertullian. "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church."||09.8 Mb||51:00
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 08||[++] (05) F. The Apologists. Apologetics = A reasoned defense. (08) 1. Quadratus and Aristides. (12) 2. Justin Martyr. First and second Apology, and Dialog with Trypho. (17) 3. Tatian Diatesseran. Departed later into Gnosticism. (21) 4. Melito, Bishop of Sardis. G. Gnosticism. Rise in 2nd C Irenaeus "Against Gnosticism". Gnostic Gospel of Thomas. (29) 1. The Meaning of Gnosis. Apocryphal book. (35) 2. Points common to most Gnostic groups. a. Claim to higher knowledge. b. Belief that matter is essentially evil. c. Belief in angelic intermediaries and opposition between the good God and the Creater of the material world. Ophites -- everything in the OT that deals with the creator is Bad. Everything opposed to the creator is good (Satan and Cainite line). (39) How could the good God take on evil matter? Docetism -- Jesus just looked like a man. e. Attitude toward the body. The Body is evil. (Asceticism). 3. Variety of Gnostic groups. The body is bad. Irenaeus on Gnosticism. 4. Gnosticism had roots as early as the time of Apostles. Colossians, Timothy. "Science falsely so-called" (science = "gnosis"). "touch not, taste not" John's letters "Jesus is come in the flesh." Simon the sorcerer in Acts. Cerinthus. Tradition about Apostle John and Cerinthus. (49) Marcion: OT God is evil. Discarded much of NT.||10.4 Mb||53:55
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 09||[+s] (4) K. Irenaeus and Tertullian. The earliest writers from whom any extensive amount of material is preserved. Irenaeus in Greek, Tertullian in Latin. (01:45) Tertulllian founded our theological vocabulary in the Latin language. Our theological terms represent the words that Tertullian picked out. Great thinker, very great writer. In last years of his life he was not in the Catholic church, not in the main stream. He became a Montanist in his later life. (05:00) L. Montanism. Generally viewed as heretic. But this is not correct. Incorrect ideas, but not heretical. Claimed special revelation. Maybe schismatic group, but formed a separate denomination. We have no history of the Montanists themselves, except from those who were hostile to them. A large group in North Africa. (10:00) There is no record that they claimed to receive revelation that would add anything of a doctrinal nature that is not already contained in the Bible. We have no information to show that they were heretical. Tended to be ecstatic. "Shapf: "An ernest and well-meaning but gloomy and fanatical hyper-Christianity which, like all hyper-spiritualism is apt to end in the flesh." However we have no evidence of claims of scandal. Tertullian seems to be half way between catholic church and Montanists. (16:28) M. Rise of Monarchianism. (17:46) 1. Definition. One power, one God. Monarchianist thought it was wrong to talk about one God in three persons. Lost hold on the trinitarian idea which is clearly taught in scripture but which we cannot explain. So afraid of being di-theist or tri-theist, that they objected to the trinitarian language. (23:50) a. Dynamic monarchianism. A useless title. (26:58) It holds that Jesus Christ was not God, he was a man (Unitarians today). Can't confuse God and Man. (29:27) other type exact opposite: There is one God so when when God moved on earth, Jesus Christ was God, not a man at all. b. Paterpassium (= "Father suffers" name from Tertullian): Jesus Christ was God, not man. Just appeared to be a man. When crucified, (38) 3. Praxeas "I and the Father are One." and Noetus active in advancing paterpassium. (36:29) N. The Papacy in the 2nd Century. (40:18) 1. The word "Pope" = Father (Italian Papa) (42:54) 2. Almost nothing known about the Bishop of Rome in the 1st. Century. McSorley, Outline History of the Church by Century lists the Bishops of Rome. Whether AnaCletus and Cletus were one or two Bishops cannot be settled. Clement latter part of 1st century only known Bishop of Rome. (48:00) 3. Insignificance of most of Roman Bishops in 2nd Century. (49:39) McSorley rmk about popes of 2nd century: except for three named leaders, the popes were "shadowy figures with pontificates of uncertain date."||9.7 Mb||51:41
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 10||[+-s] N. Papacy in 2nd
Century. Anicecus Roman pope mid-2nd
Controversy about when to celebrate the Resurrection. On Sunday or tied
to Passover (14th Nissan controversy). Focus on Resurrection or on the
Passover? (07:06) Irenaeus (Church historian) wrote about Polycarp's
visit to Anicecus. Polycarp from the Eastern church and Anicecus from
the Western Church. Polycarp said John and all the Apostles
celebrated on Passover but couldn't persuade Anicecus to do it. (09:03)
emphatic on date for Easter. Threatened excommunication of Eastern
churches. Did not carry it through. (11:24) Summary of the controversy.
Eastern Church kept 14th Nissan. Western Church observed on
Sunday. (12:00) The Council of Nicea settled it in 325: Easter is
the first Sunday after the first Full Moon after the Vernal
Equinox. (13:20) 16th C Pope Gregory adusted calendar
ahead 11 days. Protestants maintained old calendar for a century or
so. (15:21) O. The situation at
the end of the 2nd C. 1. Church growth
during this century. Some serious persecutions. But the advantages of
the Roman Empire far outweighed the disadvantages. (19:10 ) 2 .
Principle centers of Christianity.
a. Asia Minor. (20:30) b. Antioch. 2nd largest city in the Roman
Empire. Ignatius was Bishop of Antioch. (21:59) c. Jersalem largely a
pagan city after 70 AD. d. Alexandria. Could vie with Antioch for
importance. Center of Jewish and Roman culture. (23:40) e. North
Africa. First Christian writing in Latin. Tertullian. Leading city was
Carthage. (25:30) f. Gaul (France).
(25:30) g. Rome. No known outstanding leaders. (26:48) IV. The Third century. A. Roman Empire 193-249. Commodus
died in 193. (28:21) 2. Septimus Severus 193-211. Extensive persecution
of Christians. (32:18) 3. Caracalla. Extended citizenship to all who
lived in the Empire. (33:20) 4. Alexander Severus. "A true ecumenist".
Assassinated by Maximinus.
Plundered heathen temples and churches alike. Developments during
the first half of the 3rd C. (35:47) C.
began in 2nd C. By 3rd, it becomes vital movement. 3 types of
Monarchianism: 1.Dynamic denies deity of Christ;
2. paterpatrianism; (38:07) 3. Sabellianism. (early 3rd C.).
Sabellius conceived Modalism: One God
who reveals self in various ways. Silent God, Seeking god, Father God,
God the Son (Christ) Holy Spirit. (40:41 ) D. Beryllus, Bishop of Bostra.
Christ did not exist before birth. Origen convinced him to change.
(43:44) E. Hippolytus of Rome.
1. Main features of his life. First real scholar in Church at
Rome. 2. His fame in the Middle Ages. 3. Discovery of the
Philosophumena. Discusses heresies. Discovered in 1851. Eusebius lists
many writings of Hyppolytus, but only Philosophumena document is
extant. (49:25) How the Philosophumena was discovered in 1851.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 11||[++] E. Hippolytus of Rome.
Lack of information about Hippolytus. Referred to by Eusebius and other
writers. Prolific writer but
works not preserved. Venerated through middle ages. But what was his
(03:08) Papal infallibility. Hippolytus' Philosophumenas shows errors
of Monarchian Pope Zephyrinus (202-218) 4. His attitude toward
Zephyrinus (202-218) and Callistus (218-223). (04:51) "The ninth book,
in refuting the doctrine of the Noëtians and Callistians, makes
remarkable disclosures of events in the Roman church. He represents
Pope Zephyrinus as a weak and ignorant man who gave aid and comfort to
the Patripassian heresy, and his successor Callistus, as a shrewd and
cunning manager who was once a slave, then a dishonest banker, and
became a bankrupt and convict, but worked himself into the good graces
of Zephyrinus and after his death obtained the object of his ambition,
the papal chair, taught heresy and ruined the discipline by extreme
leniency to offenders. Here the author shows himself a violent
partizan, and must be used with caution." [Quote from History of the
Church, Vol. II: The Ante-Nicene Fathers, ¶183.
Hippolytus--DCB] (06:33) 5. The defense of Roman Catholic scholar
Döllinger (1799-1890): Hippolytus was an anti-pope. Convinced most
Roman Catholics. (08:47) Given by McSorley in his book as simple fact.
(09:24) (11:10) This appears to be largely
imaginary. (13:35) Döllinger opposed papal infallibility and
excommunicated in 1870. (15:52) Schapf quote about bones of St.
Hippolytus. (17:31) Pre-millennialism. (19:38) D. Clement of Alexandria, and Origen.
Clement of Alexandria. Head of Catachetical School of Alexandria. Large
Christian and Jewish population. a. His Chatechetical School. b. His
writings. Wescott's summary: Style deficient, learning
undigested. (23:34) Advanced a Christian
"gnosis": explanation of the universe. (24:54) c. Alegorical method of
interpretation. Method introduced into Judaism about time of Christ:
Philo allegorized Old Testament. (28:55) Helen Gardner book The Business of
Criticism. Allegory in the Drunkenness of Noah. Interpretations
made in the Middle Ages. Represents the
sufferings of Christ. (30:15) Clement of Alexandria indulged in
Origen affected by this. One can make anything mean anything with the
allegorical method. (31:40) 2. Origin's life. Great earnestness
and devotion. (32:55) Father Leonidus put in prison.
Anxious that his son grow up to be a great expositor. Father martyred.
Made head of
Catechetical school at age 18. Learned Hebrew, studied under various
pagan philosophers to learn their views. (38:37) Excommunicated by
bishop Demetrius of Alexandria. Reinstalled by Bishop of
Caesarea and founded a new catechetical school. Invited back to
Alexandria. Jailed and tortured in persecution of 250 AD. Emperor died
in battle, so released but
probably died of injuries. (41:09) Martyrs and Confessors. 3. Origin's
Writings, Origen wrote many
commentaries on most of the Bible. Many allegorical, so of limited
value. (42:52) 4. Origin's Views. Three interpretations to everything.
a. Grammatical historical,
b. Moral interpretation, c. Spiritual interpretation (allegorical).
(44:25) Remarks on "precise" and the value of pi. (47:57) Thousands of
questions in philosophy and interpretation that the Bible does not give
an answer to. Origin guessed on many of these things where the Bible
does not give factual evidence. As to future events, the nature
of the universe, etc. 200 years later he was called heretical for some
of these things. It is for these speculations rather than real
theological error that Origin is criticized.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 12||[+-s ] 1. Clement of Alexandria, 2. Origin's Life, 3. Origin's Writings, 4. Origin's Views. 5. The Hexapla. (02:06) Septuagint differences from Hebrew. Hexapla columns: a. Hebrew, b. Transliteration into Greek letters, c, Literal Translation of Aquila d. Symmanchus f. Theodotian translation. All by Jews who show anti-Christian bias e. Septuagint. (10:43) 6. Against Celsus (Contra Celsus) who asserted contradictions in the Bible. (15:48) Some speculative theories, but always supported clear scripture teachings. One of God's great gifts to the Christian Church. (25:00) E. Roman Empire from 249 to 300 AD. 1. Roman General Decius. Unstable leadership in empire. Sacrificing to the Emperor. Pursued Christian leadership. Order: all Chn leaders rounded up and obliged to sacrifice to the Emperor. (31:00) Libellatici -- Certificate of having sacrificed to the emperor. Lapsed Christians -- those who procured these certificates. (33:07) Letter to Cyprian. Denying the faith vs seeking martyrdom. (35:51) NT quotations from the OT. (37:37) Attitudes toward the persecution of Decius. Intent to destroy the leaders of the church. (41:12) Valerian. (42:30) Vallienus (42:57 ) Edict of Toleration 261. Christianity a legal religion. (45:10 ) 4. Imperial instability of the 3rd Century. (45:40) 5. Beginning of Diocletian's Reign. Son of slave, Head of praetorian guard. Made emperor. 4 leaders over the Eastern and Western empires. Barbarian attacks. (49:39) Wife and Daughter christians. Greatest persecution of the Christian church. Will discuss in next century. (50:14) F. Cyprian Bishop of Carthage. Fled Diocletian persecution. Returned after end. Martyred after Valerian persecution.||9.7 Mb||51:33
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 13||[++] F. Cyprian (cont'd). Converted at age 40. Made bishop or Carthage 2 years after conversion. (04:18) Novatus. Opposition to Cyprian as bishop. (04:55) 1. Cyprian's life in general. Wrote many letters. About 100 preserved. Many concern Bishop of Rome. (06:51) 2. Idea of the church. Believed in unity of church. Opposed to professing Christians not united with the church. (08:44) Regard for Tertullian (a Montanist, outside of church). Called him "the Master" but never referred to him by name. (10:55) 3. Controversy over his flight. Decius persecution of Christian leaders. Cyprian hid away from Carthage for about 1 1/2 years but remained as leader and wrote letters from his refuge. (16:40) Novatus opposed him for this flight. (18:11) 4. Problem of the Lapsarians. The Lapsarian controversy.(23) Novatus left Carthage and went to Rome. Novatian (different man) administered Rome Church until new Bishop appointed. Strict attitude towards the lapsed. (23:30) 5. Schisms at Carthage and Rome: The Novatians. (Not same as Novatus). Dealt strictly with the lapsed. (26:00) Novatus not elected Pope. Stirred up a group with Novatian as head, and formed separate church. Took strong stand against the lapsed. No doctrinal difference. Lasted at least 300 years, until middle ages. Aparently orthodox, so not a sect. (30:25) 6. Problem of heretical Baptism. Gnosticism had largely died out. When repentants came back to church, (32:30) Cyprian said they had to be baptised again. Bishop Stephen had opposite view that it was wrong to baptize again, against re-baptism. (35:52) Cyprian letter re. re-baptism. Criticised Stephen. (38:26) 7. Cyprian's relation to Rome. Recognized as a true Christian church, but did not recognize Bishop of Rome as having any special authority over other Bishops. (39:56) 8. Cyprian's martyrdom. Valerian emperor. Christians not honoring the Emperor, so must be destroyed. Martyred 258 AD.||09.3 Mb||49:53
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 14||[+-s] Three great Enemies of Christianity in the 3rd C. (Gnosticism in 2nd C.) Cicero (50 BC) a pagan. Losing faith in the old myths. Two alternatives to Christianity. (03:05) D. Mithraism and Manichaeism. (03:58) 1. Mithraism. From Persia. Based on Zoroastrianism. A mystery religion. Diety Mithras. Spread widely in 3rd. C. Similarities to Christian rituals (09:32) 2. Manachaeism. Similarities to Gnosticism. Founded by Mani (215 AD). Appears to have combined some aspects of Zoroastrianism with aspects of Christianity. (11:58) Had 12 apostles, bishops. No sovereign God. Two forces good and evil fighting one another. Good god created the world but evil god created man. N. Africa. St. Augustine at first involved in it. Good and Evil struggle against each other. Contrast to Gnosticism, a good God created world, but evil God created Man. World of light and world of darkness. Jesus a spirit which came into the world. (15:00) H. Neo-Platonism. Force against Christianity 1. Background and nature. Explain universe in terms of philosophic concepts, not based on science or observed fact but on certain theoretical ideas. Emphasized dignity of Man and great potentiality of Man. Demythologizing Grecian myths. 3 great leaders (18:24) 2. Ammoniacus Saccus. Theosophic school in Alexandria. (19:46) 3. Student Propinus (204-269). (21:41) After death his notes put into the Enniad. Included in the Great Books of the Western World. (25:07 ) 4. Porphyry.(232-304). Active anti-Christian writer. (29:50) J. Emperor Valilerius: (30:51) Edict of Toleration: 40 years freedom from persecution. (32:44) 1. Period of Great growth in church. (34:00) 2. Growth in Worldliness. (34:10) 3. Paul of Samosata. Bishop of Antioch. Example of worldliness. In attempt to explain the trinity he denied the deity of Christ. Three councils of Bishops condemned for his views. God Father entered into Christ, not trinitarian. Popular. Condemned as heretic. (37:06 ) 4. Lucian, head of church in Antioch. Supported by Paul of Samosota. Textual student. Comparing manuscripts. Today he is viewed as not having a proper understanding and much harm was done. Tried to explain the trinity. Fell into errors of Monarchianism. (39:21) K. Church of Rome in the 3rd Century. 5. The Popes of Rome. Not a single Roman pope is among the 30 most prominent Church leaders for nearly 400 years after death of Christ. Not until Pope Leo the Great in 430 AD. In 3rd C. 15 Bishops of Rome. Many became Martyrs. (46:00) Pope Stephen (254-257).||09.4 Mb||50:31
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 15||[++] V. The Church in the
4th Century. A. General Remarks. The relative insignificance of
the Bishops of Rome is remarkable. (03:17) After 325 Christianity
moves forward rapidly. 325-460 Period in which great amount of material
Church is available. (04:40) After this a dark curtain falls over the
world. (06:38) B. The Persecution of
Diocletian. Emperor Diacletian many beneficial changes. A
great administrator. (09:42) System of administration that might
have worked given time. He divided the empire into 4 parts, with 2
Augustuses and 2 Caesars under the two Augustuses. It collapsed
after Diocletian. But in end the
greatest persecution of the church. (10:52) 1. Outbreak of
persecution. After 40 years of peace. His own wife and daughter were
Christians. Caesar Galerius (under Diocletian) determined to
eradicate Christianity. In 20th year of Diocletian. Deliberate effort
to destroy Christianity (13:30)
Edict 303 AD All churches to be destroyed. All Christian writings
destroyed. Professors to be declared incapable of holding rank and
property, and degraded to the position of slaves. Emperor's
daughter and wife forced to sacrifice. All clergy arrested. (18:11) 305
AD Diocletian abdicates, with the 2
Augustuses and 2 Caesars. But Galerius took over. (19:38) Persecution
continued until 311AD. Least severe in France and Britain under
Western Caesar Constantius Chlorus (=pale), who carried out orders but
mild persecution. (21:13) 2. The New Lapsed. (24:23) Traditors (One who
hands it over) who
handed over banned books to avoid persecution. (26:13) Persecution
lasted about 8 years. (26:35) 3. Death of Galerius 311 AD. Painful
disease. Edict of Toleration in 311. Asked Christians
to pray for him. (28:41) 4. Rise of Constantine. (30:29) Son of
Constantius Chlorus (a good Caesar in Asia Minor -- Modern Yugoslavia).
As a young boy taken to be
raised in Diocletian's palace, perhaps as a hostage. Returned to join
Father when Diocletian abdicated and both went
to York (England) to fight the Picts and Scots, and his father died.
(34:00) Declared Augustus by his soldiers in 306 AD. (34:52) After
Galerius died, there was a struggle for control of the West. 2 years of
struggle. (36:04) Augury from the Syballine books. "If you march out
and attack Constantine, the enemy of Rome will perish." Constantine
won. In 312 AD. (37)
The Syballine books. "The enemy of Rome will perish." (38) Story of
vision of cross "By This I conquer." Ruled the West (39:12) 5. Edict of
313. With Licinius (ruler of East) gave more
toleration to Christians. End of national persecution of Christians.
(40:36) 6. Licinius continues persecution in the
East until 323. Constantine gradually gained control of the East. From
324 Constantine had control of entire empire. (42:36) 7. Meletian
schism in Egypt. Meletius. (44:16) 8. Scism in N. Africa. Again the
issue of the Bishop hiding during persecution as Cyprian had done.
Large group refused to recognize him. (45:49) Called Donatists. A
separate church in N. Africa for a century or two. Split church over
the leniacy of the lapsed. No theological difference. Augustine of
Hippo was a Donatist for part of his life activity.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 16||[+] V. 4th Century. (03) C. Constantine the Great. No clear doctrinal difference between Montanists and Donatists and orthodox Christians. (05) St. Augustine put end to Donatists a century later. 1. Constantine's place in Secular history. Between Diocletian and Constantine, they preserved Roman Empire for another century. (09) 1, His place in secular history. Deserves a great place. Preserved civilized life. (12) a. His political accomplishments. Made tremendous contribution to Christianity. But Constantine did not force Christian compliance. False claims about Constantine. Did not enforce Christianity but gave freedom of practice. b. The founding of Constantinople (330 AD) Capital until 1453 when overrun by Mohammedans. (20) c. Constantine's social legislation. Forbade branding of slaves and criminals on the face, 1. Constantine's place in Secular History. Debtors could not be scourges; prisoners must not be put in dungeons without light, or overloaded with chains. Defendents must be shown the criminal charges against them. (23) Impact of Christian humanitarianism throughout history. 2. Constantine's relation to the church. a. Council of Nicea. (25) b. The alleged "Donation of Constantine". (Gift of western Empire to Bishop of Rome). Proved a fraud several centuries before Reformation. (32) d. Extent of Constantine's Christian understanding. Probably not very deep. (36) 3. Advances in Christian Scholarship under Constantine. a. Eusebius' Church History. Valuable but perhaps lacking in critical judgment. (40) b. Lactantius. Historian. Also not discriminating. c. Copies of the Bible. Earliest mss of Bible. Beginning of Vellum instead of papyrus. d. Study of Palestine. (45) Constantine's mother Helena. 326 AD. (48) 3. Eusebius' Onomasticon = "The Name Book".||09.3 Mb||48:15
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 17||[++] 3. Eusebius' Onomasticon = "The Name Book". Eusebius' interest in places in the Bible. Earliest work on Bible Geography. (03:45) D. The Rise of Arianism and the Council of Nicaea. 1. Rise of Arianism. a. Background. (06:55) Monarchianism. Sabellianism: Father, Son and Holy Spirit are modes of one God in many manifestations. Not what the Bible teaches. Lucian. Problem with understanding everything in scripture. Syntheses have difficulties. Tendency to move beyond what can be known. Trinity mysteries. Result is overemphasis on certain truths at the expense of others. (08:50 Arius presbyter in Alexandria. b. Its Leader (Arius). "There was a time when He (Jesus) was not." The greatest of all created beings. God made him God. (12:50) Constantine letter to Alexander (Bishop of Egypt) and Arius. Should not divide Christianity. (13:16) "[Now] there is a new discord. And there is no real ground for it. The subjects in dispute are trivial. I offer myself as an arbiter. You, Alexander, asked the opinion of your presbyters on a question of little importance; and you, Arius, have propounded an opinion which you ought never to have held, or, at any rate, to have uttered. Hence has come this division and faction. I, your fellow servant, urge you to forgive each other equally for the unguarded question and the inconsiderate answer. It is a pity that the question was ever raised. No Christianity requires the investigation of such subjects; they arise from the disputatious cavils of ill-employed leisure. Few can understand these difficult matters in which there ought to be mutual tolerance. In reality you are agreed. Return to your former charity and restore to me my quiet days and tranquil nights, or you will force me to weep and to despair of any personal peace. Your discords alone prevent me from paying a visit to the east." (14:15) "This curious letter undoubtedly shows the benevolent yearning of a statesman. But it betrays how little of a philosopher or a theologian the emperor really was. Evidently he did not know that men who are born to investigate and to think will do so at all hazards." [quotes from John W. Moncrief A Short History of the Christian Church (1902) -- DCB] I do believe that what Constantine said is probably very true. There are needless squabbles over matters that we do not know the answer to. (15:34) A dispute over two words. (16:00) quote byThomas Carlisle on "homoousios" = same substance vs. "homoiousios" = similar substance. A difference of one letter. Froude, Life of Thomas Carlyle (quote 16:15 [Note: I have been unable to verify the source of this quotation-DCB]). "When I was a young man, I used to ridicule the Christian church being divided into two parts over one little Greek letter. But now as I have looked into things more, I see that if the homoiousious view had won out, Christianity would have disappeared more than a thousand years ago." Constantine called the Nicaean general council, the first ecumenical Council. First four recognized by most Christians. (24:16) 2. The Council of Nicaea. a. The Calling of the Council. (26:19) b. The Deliberation of the Council. Primary purpose was Arianism. (28:21) Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia presented a creed to the council. Definitely Arian. Three parties: Arian Party, smalll group of opponents, and the "grey" bulk anxious to do right, but not clear on details. But voted down the Arian creed. (30:43) Eusebius bishop of Caesarea presented a creed to the council. Jesus Christ "very God of very God, creator of the universe." Well received. Objections from the opponents. Added "the same substance as the Father", the word homoousios. Agreed over Arian objections. (34) But not sufficient to address Arianism. Inserted into the creed "The same substance as the Father" (homoousia). Athenatius was a young man accompanied Alexander of Alexandria. Recognized in council as a leader in the opposition to Arians. (40:18) c. The Homoousian Creed. Accepted by practically the whole council. Constantine exiled the Arian leaders. (41:51) d. Other acts of the Council. 1). The Easter Controversy. Easter on first Sunday after first full moon after the vernal equinox. (44:48) 2). The Donatists. They can re-unite with the regular church. The Donatists did not accept this (died out about a century later) (45:56) 3). Meletian church. Meletius. Tried to ministry in Alexandria while the regular bishop was in hiding. Council declared the Meltian bishops can be invited to be part of church. Again they didn't agree and remained separate. (47:16) 4). Celibacy of the Clergy. Turned down. (48:57) 3. The Arian controversy to the Death of Constantine (died 337). (49:57) a. Work of Athanatius. Bishop 328 upon death of Alexander. Book "Against Paganism" defense of Christianity. Book "Against Arianism".||9.9 Mb||52:45
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 18||[-] [portions of this recording are inaudible] (02) Resistence to banning of the Arians. Sons of Bishop of Nicomedia. (04) a. The work of Athanatius. b. Political maneuvers of the Arians. Tried to undermine Athanatious. Council at Pryor. Constantine urged to bring Arius back from exile. (12) Church at Alexandria forced to take him back. Athanatious exiled. Constantine died. (13) b. Death of Ariius. E. The reign of Constantius 347-361. Youngest Son of Constantine. Rise again of Arianism. (15) a. Sons of Constantine. (19) 350 general murdered Constance. Brother Constantus ruled and let Athanatious to come back in Alexandria. Fled to Rome. Over his life exiled five times. (24) But careful expositions of Scripture. (29) F. The rule of Julian [inaudible] (43) Valens.[inaudible]||08.8 Mb||45:26
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 19||[++] Effort under Julian to overthrow Christianity. G. Downfall
Arianism. Valens. a. Reign of Julian. b. Accession of Valens.
Effort of Valens to carry out the policy of Constantius. Valens was an
Arian Christian. Ordered all
bishops recalled by Julian back into exile including Athanatius.
Valens found Egypt people devoted to Athanatius, so he was recalled.
(04:12) 2. The last years of Athanatius. Long struggle against
(05:08) Review of Athanatius' life. Became bishop 326 or 328 until 336.
335 a year before Constantine's death to a city far away but with a
friendly governor. Recalled in 339 under Constantius. Replaced by Arian
bishop, and Athanatius went to Rome for a number of years. Returned
under Constantus for 9 years. (12:52). Fled to
desert living with groups of hermits. After death of Constansus he
returned. Well-treated by Jovian. In 46 years as Bishop he
was in exile 20 years. (15:45) Apollinarus during Julian: Christians
should not teach the Classics. But originated a number of errors which
Athanatius had to oppose. Same substance but not just manifestations.
Athanatius created the term (19:03) Hypostasis. Translated in
Persona, a poorer term. God in three persons. Not the best word, but it
stuck. One God
but three hypostases (persons).(22:09) Schaff quote on Athanatius as a
writer. "As an author, Athanasius is distinguished for theological
depth and discrimination, for dialectical skill, and sometimes
fulminating eloquence. He everywhere evinces a triumphant intellectual
superiority over his antagonists... He pursues them into all their
lading-places, and refutes all their arguments and their sophisms, but
never loses sight of the main point of the controversy, to which he
ever returns with renewed force. His views are governed by a strict
logical connection ; but his stormy fortunes prevented him from
composing a large systematic work. Almost all his writings are
wrung from him by circumstances ; not a few of them were hastily written in exile." [from Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vo. III Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity, p892] His special letters were discovered 150 years ago in Syriac translation. Other Men. (28:54) 3. Hilary of Poitiers. Did more in the west to advance the Nicene creed than any other person. Exiled by Constansus. During exile wrote 12 books on the Trinity. (31:00) 4. Basil the Great. Bishop of Northern Caesarea in Cappadocia. Outstanding organizer. Emperor Valens threatened banishment, but didn't do it. Confusion as to why he didn't. (35:40) 5. Gregory of Nazianzen. Friend of Basil. Great Orator. 279 went to Constantinople, to an Arian stronghold. He preached orthodoxy, and convinced many -- leading to fading of Arianism. (39:06) 6. Gregory of Nissa. Younger brother of Basil. Acute theological thinker. Good writer. (40:22) 7. Elevation of Ambrose in Milan. Substantial role in downfall of Arianism. Governor but Made Bishop of Milan by popular demand. (46:30) 8. Accession of Theodosius. In 365-378 Valens in the East. Various in West. Valens killed in battle in 378. A Christian. Came out of retirement and Made Emperor in the east. Kept Goths at bay.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 20||[+-] Downfall of Arianism H.
First Council of Constantinople
second general council, 381 AD). 1. The Calling of the Council. By
Theodotius. Orthodox in overwhelming majority. (03:15) Previous
attempts to call a council. So-called Council of Sardica 343.
(05:55) Orthodox Christians have always considered the first four
ecumenical councils as of great importance. (07:30) 2. The End of
Arianism. The Orthodox were in an overwhelming majority. Full and
complete deity of Christ (08:40) 3. Macedonianism: The Holy Spirit is
not actually God.
Had not been great argument about the Holy Spirit. The council affirmed
the full deity of the Holy Spirit. (11:48) 4. Apollonarianism.
Appolonarius advocated wide education of Christians,
including the Classics. How Jesus can be fully God and fully Man
same time? (16:17) Apollonarianism: An attempt to make it clear: Man
has three parts: body which is material, soul which enjoyed food and
emotions, and spirit which thought.
Apollonarius: Jesus had a human body & soul but the second P erson
of the trinity took over part of the Spirit. (18:45) The
Council was the end of the Trinitarian
Controversy. But it was the first stage in the controversy over the
Person of Jesus Christ. He was a complete man and also fully God.
(19:54) 5. Gregory
and Meccarius. Gregory of Naziansum who had worked with Basil.
Began to preach in the Church of the Resurrection. Made bishop of
Sasima, a small town near Constantinople. (21:13) Opposition to
Gregory's becoming bishop of
Constantinople which had been strongly Arian. (26:54) Gregory was
willing to withdraw from consideration (perhaps out of irritation).
Harmful for the Cause of Christ. The Capital had moved to
Constantinople, the headquarters of the Emperor. Needed Gregory to
stand up to the Emperor. (32:05) But the council then chose
Meccarius, a layman. A good man, but not on the level of Emperor.
So the Bishop of Constantinople for the next 1000 years was under the
shadow of the Emperor. (35:15) 6. A glance at
the next two councils. Council of Ephasis 431. Chalcedon 451.
(36:49) Concerned the Christological controversy. After
Appollonarianism, came Nestorianism: Christ's divine and human
natures are separate. Ephesis concluded He is fully God and fully Man
and these cannot be divided. (39:30) The opposite direction is
Monophysitism: Christ is one nature that is a mixture of divine and
human. No: Christ is one person fully God and fully Human. It is
inexplainable. Resolved at Chalcedon. Not progress of doctrine, but
improvement of expression of the doctrine. (43:25) J. Ulfilas. We know little about
him, but a great deal about the result of his activities. Life had
profound results but he is
hardly known. One of the great missionaries in world history. Lived
among the Goths and
Vandals. Asked to come into Roman Empire. Moved to Romania. A great
many became ernest
Christians. For historical reasons, they espoused Arian views. Came
into the empire. Ulfilas lived among them. Translated
whole Bible except Kings. Made up alphabet. Went outside the
em[pire and converted many Goths into nominal Christianity. Later the
Goths overthrew the Roman Empire. Being Nominal Christians they tried
not to harm the Christians when they invaded the Roman Empire.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 21||[++] Ulfilas. (02) Three phases: Second is Ulfilas. Third is Monasticism. (06) Humanly speaking, It is doubtful if Christianity in Europe would have survived without his work. Perhaps not even knowledge of the Greek and Roman Heritage. For all their destructiveness, they took great care with people who were ordained Christians or properties of them. Also strong loyalty to Arianism, which separated them from the ortodox views of the Councils. Phase 3: (10) K. Beginnings of Monasticism. late 4th C AD. (15) Cult of saints. 1. Causes of this Development. a. ? Example of St. Paul. b. Desire to escape worldliness of the Roman Empire. (22) c. Condition of the Egyptian and Syrian Deserts. Where Monasticism began. 1. Causes of this development. Climate allowed hermit life. 2. St. Anthony. Lived as a hermit. (26) Paul of Thebes. 3. Influence of Athanatius. Wrote Life of St. Anthony. (32) 4. Basil the Great. Organized group for meditation (35) 5. Pachomius. Organized hermits into groups. Urged them to spend time in useful labor. (36) 6. Jerome. Great scholar. (38) L. Downfall of Paganism. "Pagan" = (outlying) village. "Heathen" = "from the heaths (outlying areas). Constantine (Pontifex maximus) favored Christianity but allowed pagan worship. Gratian (emperor in West) refused to take title of Pontifex maximus "Bridge builder" removed pagan symbols. Theodotius (emperor in East then whole empire) made Christianity the official worship and ordered pagan worship to cease.||09.1 Mb||47:40
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 22||[++] (02) M. Ambrose of Milan & Chrysostom. 1. Ambrose a. background -- from political family. Sent to Milan to be governor of area. "Go not as ruler but as bishop". (05) b. Becomes bishop of Milan. Opposed Arian church in Milan. Roman Empire became too dependent on mercenary soldiers. They wanted an Arian church, but Ambrose resisted it. St. Augustine came to Christianity in Milan under Ambrose. (19) Theodotius. Called 2nd great Council on Arianism. (22) Massacre at Thessalonica. Ambrose faced emperor "your hands are blood and refused communion to him." 2. John Chrysostom. "John the golden mouth." a. background. Chn family in Antioch. Excellent education. (29) Lived as hermit in the desert, studying scripture. Preacher in Antioch. Dozens of sermons preserved. c. The statue of Theodotius destroyed. Mob riot in Antioch. Governor of Antioch and Bishop came to Theodotius in Constantinople to plead for mercy. (34) John gave messages "On the statue." City spared but some leaders punished. (37) d. Bishop of Constantinople (398). Abducted from Antioch. e. Trouble with the Court. (43) Preached against hypocrasies and sins of the court. Connived with Bishop of Alexandria. (44) f. Exile and death. 60 yrs. of age. Brought back after earthquake. (47) Exiled again. Died during hard journey. Bishop of Rome broke with Constantinople.||09.4 Mb||48:13
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 23||[++] Chrysostom sermons. [Note: The following quotations are
from John H. Willey, Chrysostom: the
Orator (1906)] (00:26) Sermon on Matthew 31:42 (sic.)—Matt. 26:39 "The doctrine of
the incarnation was very hard to receive. For consider what a great
thing it was to hear and to learn that God the ineffable, the
incorruptible, the unintelligible, the invisible, the incomprehensible,
in whose hand are the ends of the earth, who looks upon the earth, and
causes it to tremble, who touches the mountains, and makes them smoke,
the weight of whose condescension not even the Cherubim were able to
bear but veiled their faces by the shelter of their wings, that
this God who surpasses all understanding, and baffles all calculation,
having passed by angels, archangels, and all the spiritual powers
above, deigned to become man, and to take flesh formed of earth and
clay, and suffer all things to which man is liable." [ibid. p.176] (01:19) Another
sermon written right after a great crisis had occurred. "Delectable
indeed are the meadow, and the garden, but far more delectable the
study of the divine writings. For there indeed are flowers which fade,
but here are thoughts which abide in full bloom; there is the breeze of
the zephyr, but here the breath of the Spirit: there is the hedge of
thorns, but here is the guarding providence of God; there is the song
of cicadæ, but here the melody of the prophets: there is the
pleasure which comes from sight, but here the profit which comes from
study. The garden is confined to one place, but the Scriptures are in
all parts of the world; the garden is subject to the necessities of the
seasons, but the Scriptures are rich in foliage, and laden with fruit
alike in winter and in summer. Let us then give diligent heed to the
study of the Scriptures: for if you do this the Scripture will expel
your despondency, and engender pleasure, and in the tumult of life it
will save thee from suffering like those who are tossed by troubled
waves. The sea rages but you sail on with calm weather; for you have
the study of the Scriptures for your pilot. A few days ago the Church
was besieged: an army came, and fire issued from their eyes, yet it did
not scorch the olive tree; swords were unsheathed, yet no one received
a wound; the imperial gates were in distress, but the Church was in
security." [ibid. p.
146]. (02:46) Chrysostom taken to Constantinople against his will
and made bishop there. Lashed out against the sins and vices of
the Capital. Wife of emporer caused him to be sent to exile. (03:33)
"Then, on July 4th, the exile started on his sad journey. Straight
across Asia Minor did the road lie. Through the primeval, shadowy
forests of Bithynia, [perhaps along the road later followed by European
devotees journeying overland to Jerusalem;] across the salt
deserts and burning trackless wastes of Galatia, through the wild
mountain gorges of Cappadocia, went this dismal pilgrim's progress,
heart-sore, foot-weary, hopeless, sick; feeding off black bread,
drinking foul water, scorched with fever, shaking with chills ;
watching by night against the prowling bandit; threatened each day by
the bishops through whose diocese he must pass,—no wonder the aged
sufferer writes that his lot is worse than the chained convict who
works in the public mines.] [ibid. p.141]
(04:17) He reached an area in Cappadocia where, he understood, a
warm welcome was waiting. "I found an impression in my mind precisely
the reverse; but of this I said nothing. Now, when I arrived late one
evening at Csesarea in an exhausted and wornout condition, being in the
very height of a burning fever, faint and suffering to the last degree,
I lighted upon an inn situated just in the outskirts of the city, and
took great pains to find some physicians and allay this fiery fever,
for it was now the height of my tertian malady. And in addition to this
there was the fatigue of the journey, the toil, the strain, the total
absence of attendants, the difficulty of getting supplies, the want of
a physician, the wasting effects of toil and heat and sleeplessness.
Thus I was well-nigh a dead man when I entered the city. Then indeed I
was visited by the whole body of the clergy and the people, monks,
nuns, physicians, and I had the benefit of great attention, as all paid
me every kind of ministration and assistance. "Pharetrius [the Bishop],
however, nowhere appeared, but waited for my departure, I know not with
what purpose in mind. When, then, I saw that my disorder had slightly
abated, I began to form plans for my journey, so as to reach Cucusus,
and enjoy a little repose after the calamities of the way. And whilst I
was thus situated, it was suddenly announced that the Isaurians in
countless multitudes were overrunning the district of Caesarea, and had
burned a large village and were most violently disposed. The tribune
having heard this, took the soldiers which he had and went out. For
they were afraid lest the enemy should make an assault also upon the
city; and all were in terror and in an agony of alarm, the very soil of
their country being in jeopardy, so that even the old men undertook the
defense of the walls. While affairs were in this condition, suddenly
towards dawn a rabble of monks rushed up to the house where we were,
threatening to set fire to it and to treat us with the utmost violence
unless we turned out of it. And neither the fear of the Isaurians nor
my own infirmity, which was so grievously afflicting me, nor anything
else made them more reasonable; but they pressed on, animated by such
rage that even the proconsular soldiers were terrified. For they kept
threatening them with blows, and boasted that they had shamefully
beaten many of the proconsular soldiers. The soldiers having heard
these things, sought refuge with me, and entreated and beseeched me,
saying, 'Even if we are to fall into the hands of the Isaurians,
deliver us from these wild beasts!' When the governor heard this, he
hastened down to the house, intending to succor me, but the monks would
not pay any heed to his exhortations, and, in fact, he was powerless.
Perceiving the great straits in which affairs were placed, and not
daring to advise me either to go out to certain death, or on the other
hand to stay in-doors owing to the excessive fury of these men, he sent
to Pharetrius beseeching him to grant a few days' respite on account of
my infirmity and the impending danger. But even then nothing was
effected, and on the morrow the monks arrived even fiercer than before,
and none of the presbyters dared to stand by me, but covered with shame
and blushes—for they said these things were done by the instruction of
Pharetrius—they concealed themselves and lay hid, not even responding
when I called them." [Ibid.
pp.142-145]. (07:31). He went on but died along the journey to exile.
25 years later the Emperor's son had his bones brought back to
Constantinople and made public apologies for the way he had been
treated. (09:47) N.
scholar. (13:03) Influenced the extension of monasticism to the West.
(18:26) Monasticism preserved the Scriptures in Europe through the Dark
Ages. (21:39 ) 1. Birth and
early life. Studies in Rome. Studied the classics. (24:46) Dream.
Rebuked for pagan studies. (26:10) 2. Went into Syrian Desert for a
number of years.
Became hermit. Extensive studies Hebrew etc. (28:28) Heard lectures by
Gregory in 380 on the Deity of Christ. (29:02) 3.
Years in Rome
(382-385). 3 years. Secretary to Pope Damasus. Pope asked for a better
translation. (30:20) First worked on revision. Then directed to a new
translation from original languages (Hebrew and Greek). (31:57) A
project. In common language of the day (Latin in the West).
Called the Latin Vulgate = for the common people. (36:30) Promoted
Monasticism. Influence among prominent women in Rome. (38:24) St.
Paula. Followed him to Jerusalem. (39:30) Many in Rome nominal
Christians. Degenerate. Left Rome when Pope Damascus died. (42:50) 4.
Jerome at Bethlehem (385-420). Paula also went separately. Established
a monastery. (44:35) 5. The Vulgate. (45:50) Apocrypha. Seven
Books and parts of two others. (48:25) Jerome explicitly excluded the
Apocrypha in his first translations. (49:07) Friends implored Jerome to
translate the Apocrypha. He translated two
apocryphal books (Judith and Tobit). Tobit he translated in one day.
Refused to translate any others of the Apocrypha. Others translated the
rest. (50:02) remarks on accuracy
in translations. Impossible to make an accurate translation. Words are
like circles that overlap in meaning. Remarks on Purgatory.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 24||[++ ] Review. Jerome. (08:52) Ascetic life. Great
student, constant writer, the most learned man in the ancient Christian
church. An earnest and sincere Christian. (09:45) His greatest sin was
pride. Showed up in many controversies. Would tear into his adversaries
most strongly and sarcastically and bitterly. (10:52) His
scholarly achievements. 5. The Vulgate. The Bible in the language of
the common people. (13:45) remarks about accuracy of translations.
(14:34) A word is never a point, a word is a surface, and the surface
will cover different areas. Words have areas of meaning.
(14:42) The word "repent" in Latin may mean "repent" (a
change of heart) or "do penance" (an outward act of penance). (16:08)
Jerome did not want to include the Apocrypha. Refused to translate
them, but in the end translated two of them quickly: Tobit in one day.
Others added by other translators. (20:05) 6. Jerome's
Commentary. (20:37) Presbyter vs. Bishop vs. priest. (22:25) Jerome
ordained as a Presbyter not a Bishop. Word priest as used now
comes from presbyter (elder). Commentaries on many books. Most
learned commentaries of the time. Origin also wrote commentaries.
Jerome influenced by Origen but more
dependable than Origin. Origin gave many symbolic meanings which are
questionable. Wycliff's translation was from the Vulgate.
(27:08) 7. Jerome's other works. Doctrinal matters, ethical matters.
Eusebius's Onomastica (Geography of Palestine) with his own commentary.
Of great value in archaeology today.
(29:00) Letters—Over 150 preserved. (29:49) 8. Originistic Controversy.
Jerome attacked Origin. (31:20) 9. Monastic controversy. Jovinian
opposed. Advocated a normal life, a good family life. (33:15)
Vigilantia = The wide awake one. (34:14) O. The Church of Rome in the 4th Century.
No outstanding Roman
Bishop before 440 AD. (45:30) Pontifex Maximus first applied to
leader. Previously used for pagan head of state. (46:15) VI. Life and work
of St. Augustine 354- 430. (49:00) A. The importance of St. Augustine.
One of the greatest men in all of Church History. Leaving out Jerome
and Origin, he wrote as much as any 4 or 5 other Christian writers put
together. A great thinker, not a great scholar.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 25||[++] St. Augustine. a. Importance of St. Augustine. Left us more writing than anyone else in antiquity except Origin and Jerome. But a greater thinker than either of these. Concerned with practical affairs. Origin and Jerome began with Christian background. Augustine started non-Christian, had a tumultuous conversion experience. Not under persecution. (06) b. Augustine's early life. (10) Confessions (Autobiography). (24) Manichean influence. 9 years attended Manichean services. (27) Mother prayed he would become a Christian. Movd to Rome. Then Milan. Preaching of St. Ambrose. Greatly interested. (35) c. Augustine's Conversion. (38) d. Augustine as Bishop. Hippo (a small port). Large donatist church, small catholic church. Asked Augustine to help the elderly bishop. (44) Became presbyter (addistant pastor). Auxiliary bishop. WIthin a year his bishop died and he succeeded. e. Augustine's confessions. (50) f. Manichean controversy.||09.8 Mb||51:49
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 26||[++] St. Augustine. f. Manichean controversy (cont) Dualism struggle between good and evil. But God is sovereign. (06) g. The Donatist controversy, A Christian movement. Not heresy. No doctrinal differences. Difference in goodness and harm of certain individuals. Fallout of the Diocletian persecution. (21) Validity of baptism; need for rebaptism. Issue of ordination. (23) Augustine sought reconciliation. (33) h. The City of God. Very important book. Second after his Confessions. (34) 1.The City of God a. The Barbarian invasion. (41) Sacking of Rome (410 AD). (45) 3. Augustine's answer. City of God. Writing extended over 13-14 years. Not a unified work. What does he mean by the City of God? (48) 4. Effect of the book. Is there going to be a City of God? Led to papal power and concept of a Christian City ruled by the Church.||09.5 Mb||49:49
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 27||[+] VI. Fifth Century. City of Man overwhelmed by Barbarians. But not clear what is the City of God. Is it up to the church to build the City of God on earth? (07) Janssen movement in 17th C. (08) J. Augustine's relation with Jerome. Contemporaries. Jerome older. Letters to Jerome. (11) Remarks about Gal. 2:11-14 "Paul rebuked Peter to his face". Augustine argued that the Apostles didn't disagree. (15) 402 AD Jerome gave sarcastic reply. Augustine wrote to conciliate but included another slightly critical remark about Romans. Another misunderstanding. (20) Augustine another very friendly letter. Later Jerome stood with Augustine re. Pelagian controversy. (23) K. Pelagian controversy 411-431. 1. Outbreak of the Controversy. (24) a. Pelagius' background. Learned. Real Scholar. Some good commentaries. Ascetic. b. Pelagius' views. Adam's sin doesn't affect us. Denied Grace. We should forsake earthly things. (But we ourselves are deserving of God's wrath) (31) c. Celestius. Roman lawyer. Spread Pelagian views. d. Pelagius and Celestius visit Africa 411. (33) e. Augustine's first criticism 412. Celestius denied ordination. (34) 2. Pelagius in Palestine. Image of God in man is not obliterated in the Fall. (36) Jerome spoke against it. c. Synod at Jerusalem 415. Arosius opposed. d. Synod of Lydba.Dec. 415. Ordained Celestius. Wrong to criticize e. Attack on Jerome's monestary. (41) 3. Controversy in the West. a. N. Africa synod 416. Pelagius' and Celestius' teaching that anyone could be saved apart from the grace of God is wrong. b. Letter of discipline by Pope Innocent. (45) c. Augustine's sermon in Carthage "The cause is finished." New Pope's response defending Pelagius.||09.1 Mb||47:48
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 28||[+] d. Action of Bishop (Pope) Vosimus reversed "Do not take a stand about Pelagianism. We have to look at the matter. But give them a strong recommendation as men." e. The African council of 418. Repeated strong condemnation of Pelagian and his view. (04) Appeal made to Emperor Honorius (of the West) to take a stand against the heresy. Edict resulted. Vosimus changed his viewpoint. (08) Declared that Pelagianism was contrary to sound doctrine. 4. Julian of Eclanium. Bishop. Supported Pelagianism. Opposed by Augustine. (12) 5. Augustine's doctrine of predestination. Indivdual election. (15) In East the Church focused on the person of Christ; in the West the focus was to accept trinity but focus on soteriology, personal salvation. Church as a whole did not follow Augustine's views of predestination (Mcthory's history "Predestination controversy ended with this view being ruled out.") (17) 6. Council of Ephesus (431 AD). Condemnation of Pelagianism. 7. Later history of the controversy: Semi-pelagianism. (19) 8. Semi-Augustinianism. Deny predestinationation. Characterized the church until Luther. (21) L. Augustine and the Church of Rome. 1. Immediate Effect of Augustine's work on the development of the Roman City(?) a. End of Donatist controversy. Augustine's attitude hardened against them. b. The City of God. 1. Immediate effect (28) 2. Ultimate effect. Became a great force against the Roman system. 3. Augustine's personal relation with Bishop of Rome. a. The famous sermon. b. Reaction to Vosimus' attitude. (30) c. Other matters. Bishop of Rome tried to interfer with North Africa, but church made clear he had no right to interfere. (33) M. Augustine's other writings. Many Commentaries. Wrote "Retractions": a survey and discussion of his writings and present attitudes. (40) M. The Last Days of Augustine. 1. The Political development. Vandals -- a Germanic tribe. Mercenaries in Roman Empire. Migrated into N. Africa. Conquered Morocco. Arian Christians; Destroyed trinitarian churches. Attacked Hippo. End of Augustine's lIfe only 3 cities not conquered by Vandals. Died 430 AD. Whole civilization collapsed.||09.5 Mb||51:18
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 29||[+] VII. 5th C. AD. A. The Political Situation. "Barbarians" were civilized -- Aryan Christians. The collapse came because they came in too fast to assimilation. (04) 1. The Divided empire. Eastern part continued until Mohammedan conquest. West subject to attack and plunder. (07) 2. Sack of Rome (410). Western Goths - Visigoths. Arian Christians, spared churches. 3. The Vandals. Germanic tribe. (10) Conquered N. Africa. 450 attacked Italy and plundered. (12) 4. The Huns abt 450. Asians. Attila. Did not attack Rome. Perhaps Pope Leo involved. Buried in mystery. Venice built at that time. (18) 5. Events in Britain. Three Germanic groups who came from N. Germany Angles, Saxons, Gups, settled in Britain. Cut of from Roman World. B. Conversion of Ireland. (25) Paladius missionary to Ireland. Declared unable to civilize. 3. St. Patrick. At 16 carried as slave to Ireland. Repented of his boyhood, filled with desire to reach Irish people for Christ. Escaped to either Britain or France. (30) Studied to be Missionary and returned to Ireland. Worked about 50 years. Most of Ireland became Christian. Many monastaries. Companion St. Bridgette. (32) 4. The Irish Missionary Work. A new center for exension of christianity, as N. Africa was being destroyed. Missionaries to Scotland, then France, Switzerland and N. Italy. No greater missionary work than the Irish. Pope Adrian IV sent papal bull to Henry II. To invade Ireland. 1170 Henry subdued Irish nation. Irish missionary work then ended. C. The Church of Rome in the 5th Century. 1. Factors contributing to its importance. (37) a. The importance of the city of Rome.(41) b. Removal of Emperor from Rome. Left Bishop as most powerful official. e. Other Western Churches looked to Church of Rome for advice and help. (45) 2. Relation of Roman BIshop to Churches of N Africa.||09.1 Mb||48:25
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 30||[++] (01) 3. Comparative insignificance of Roman Bishops until 440 AD. 4. Leo the Great (440 AD) Towered over any other Bishop of Rome to that time. Claims of Authority of the Bishop of Rome. Clearness of theological mind. Typical of best of Western Theologians of the time. (08) Emphasis on discussions on the character of the Trinity in the Eastern church; discussions of practical christian life in the West. (09) Letter of Leo 449 taken almost verbatim at the Council of Chalcedon in 451.(10) D. The Christological controversy. 1. General remarks. Explaining the inexplicable. East tried to use human logic. (13) 2. Background of the Christological controversy: the Trinitarian (Arian) controversy. 3. Appolonarianism controversy. Appolonarianaism did not gain great following. Condemned in Council of Constantinople. But led up to this council. (20) 4. The Nestorian Controversy. Antiochan school put emphasis on humanity of Christ. enemies: (22) accused Nestorius divided Christ in two: human and divine nature. theotosis = the mother of God. (26) Nestorius "God could not have a monther" opposed by Bishop Cyril of Alexandria. (28)Third Ecumenical Council in 431 condemned Nestorius. Condemned the idea that Christ is 2 persons. Nestorian Churches in Persia and China by missionary work of these Nestorians. (32) 5. Eupychianism or Monophysitism. Jesus' nature neither divine nor human but some mixture. Not fully God, not fully Man but some combination. Spokesman Eutichus was head of monestary in Constantinople. (39) Council of Robbers at Ephesis (449). Declared Leo should be dropped from Bishop of Rome. Emperor Theodotius died. (40). Sister able, picked out a senator, former general. Married him and he became emperor. Called a new general council at Chaledon. 4th Ecumenical Councils 451.||09.2 Mb||49:48
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 31||[++] 6. Council of Chalcedon 451. Statement on the Person of Christ. (02) a. Background. The Robber Council. b. Pope Leo's letter to Flavian (June 13, 449 AD). Discussion of relation of the Natures of Christ. Bettenson's Documents of the Christian Church. quotes letter (04) about Eutiches' foolishness: "Not knowing then what he ought to hold concerning the Incarnation of the Word of God, and not caring to have his understanding enlightened by travailing in the wide field of Holy Scripture, he should at least have listened attentively to that common and uniform confession, in which the whole body of the faithful profess that they believe "IN GOD THE FATHER ALMIGHTY, AND IN JESUS CHRIST HIS ONLY SON OUR LORD, WHO WAS BORN OF THE HOLY GHOST AND THE VIRGIN MARY." By which three sentences the devices of almost all heretics are overthrown. For when God is believed to be both Almighty and Father, it follows that the Son is co-eternal with Him, in no respect different from the Father, because He was born God of God, Almighty of Almighty, co-eternal of eternal, not posterior in time, not inferior in power, not dissimilar in glory, not divided in essence. But the same only-begotten, eternal Son of the eternal Father was born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary. Which temporal nativity hath made no diminution from, no addition to, that divine and eternal nativity, but hath bestowed itself wholly on the restoration of man who had been deceived, that it might both overcome death, and by its own virtue destroy the devil who had the power of death. For we could not gain the victory over the author of sin and death unless He had taken our nature and made it His own, whom neither sin could defile nor death hold, having been conceived by the Holy Ghost, in the womb of His Virgin mother, whose Virginity remained entire in His birth, as in His conception. ╔The property or distinctive character then of each nature and substance remaining entire, and coalescing into one person, humility was assumed by majesty, by might weakness, by eternity mortality, and in order to pay the debt of our condition an impassible nature was united to a passible one, that, as a remedy suited to our case, one and the same Mediator between God and men, the man Jesus Christ, might be capable of death from the one and incapable from the other. Very God, therefore, was born in the entire and perfect nature of very man, whole in His own nature, whole in ours. Ours I mean which the Creator framed in the beginning, and which He assumed that He might restore : for that which the Deceiver brought in, and man being deceived admitted, had no trace in the Saviour. Nor, because He condescended to share our infirmities, did He therefore partake with us in our sins. He took upon Him the form of a servant without the defilement of sin, augmenting what was human, detracting nothing from what was divine, forasmuch as that emptying of Himself, whereby the Invisible rendered Himself visible, and the Creator and Lord of all things willed to be mortal, was a stooping down of compassion, not a defect of power. Accordingly He who remaining in the form of God made man, the same in the form of a servant was made man. For each nature retains its own property without defect, and as the form of God does not take away the form of a servant, so the form of a servant makes no diminution of the form of God." (10) c. Pope's attitude toward Chalcedon. The council was called against Leo's wishes. (13) d. The Council's doctrinal decisions. Accepted Leo's letter. "Peter has spoken through Leo." (16) "Of one substance (homoousios) with God the Father as regards his Godhood, Of one substance with us as regards his manhood." (20) This is NOT a development of theology. It is based entirely on what the Scripture clearly teaches expressed clearly. e. The Results. (25) The Monophysites broke off communion. Remain to the present day. Greater part of Church of Egypt remained under Mohammedan overlordship. Became the Coptic church. (27) f. The 28th Canon of the Council of Chalcedon. Declared that Bishop of Rome is equal with Bishop of Constantinople. Leo objected to this. (31) 7. Later Monophysite controversy. Attempts to woo back the Monophysites. Several other councils. Monothelites: 2 natures but only 1 will. Also rejected. (34) Political and Religious events after Chalcedon. 1. End of the Western Roman Empire. 476 Western Emperor deposed. (40) 2. Clovis and the Franks. (Name later shortened to Louis, the future French kings). (43) Adopted Catholic Christianity (not Arian). Taking over of Christianity by the King. Cruel administration. 3. Special Development in Monasticism. The Pillar Monks. Simeon Stylites.||09.5 Mb||50:09
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 32||[++] (07) VIII. Dark Ages 476-1000 600 years of semi-civilization. A. Political and culatural situation. 1. Great cultural decline. Literacy decreased. 2. Lack of strong center to produce peace and order. (15) 3. Development of the Feudal system. Protection by local overlords. No central power. (20) 4. Theoretical continuance of the idea of the Roman empire. Church remained as a unifying force. (23) 5. Beginnings of Nationalism. 6. Preservation of culture in the Monasteries. (36) 7. New Migration. Slavic and Scandanavian. (48) 8. Political effects of the rise of Islam. A counterfeit Christianity. Denies atonement of Christ. Started around 600 AD.||10.1 Mb||52:55
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 33||[+] Dark Ages. Survey of events. 8. (contd) Mohammed. (07) There is one God and Mohammed is his prophet, and everyone should obey Mohammed. And any method you can find is worthwhile to bring people into subjection to this. Conquering by force of arms. Conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Asia Minor. Across N. Africa, Spain and into France. (12) Justinian 527-555 before beginning of Islam. Codified the Roman Laws. Compromised with Monophysites. Leo the Third (Leo the Isaurian) (717). Emperor of Eastern Empire. Now facing Mohammedan menace. (18) Worked to destroy the Church images. Iconoclasm. Conflict with the church in the west. The Iconoclastic controversy. In East statues eliminated. But allowed icons (flat images). (24) 10. France and Germany during this period. Merodingins nominally ruling France & Germany. (26) Charles Martel ( -741) defeated Mohammedans and drove out of France. Peppin Southern Germany an Northern France. Bishop of Rome & Peppin got together. 752 Peppin crowned King of France. (31) Son Charles the Great (Charlemagne). Put down the Lombards in Italy. Interested in education and culture. Ruled all of France, Germany, Hungary, much of Italy. Hugh Papet about 1000 AD started line of French Kings. 962 Otto I crowned emperorer of Holy Roman Empire. (41) England Bretons, Anglos, Saxons. King Alfred. (45) 12. Italy During this period. (48) B. Monasticism 1. Founding of the Benedictine Order Benedict 480-543. (50) 2. Preservation of Learning in the Monastery.||09.5 Mb||51:32
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 34||(++) Description of Benedictine Order. 3. Good and bad features of Monasticism. Good. Preservation of literature. Public assistance. Bad: escapism. Wealth of Monastary. Danger of salvation by works. Luther did away with the instiutution because of corruption. (10) 4. The Cluny reforms. (town in France). major effect after 1000 AD. Improvement in moral and religious standards in Europe. C. Spiritual Life in the Dark Ages. (13) 1. Widespread violence. 2. Monestaries as refuges. 3. Growth of superstition. (15) a. Maryolatry. (18) Worship of Saints.(21) c. Image Worship. Iconoclastic controversy in 8th Century when facing Islam. d. Purgatory. (24) Gregory the Great 600 AD. Endorsed concept of Purgatory. e. Transsubstantiationism. (31) Communion as a repetition of Christ's sacrifice. (33) 844 AD Radbercus wrote Book "The Body and Blood of the Lord". (34) Strongly opposed by some prominent leading scholars Racramnus wrote book against it. Another scholar also opposed idea. Second person Masorius. Important that these scholars were not rebuked. (37) 4. Gospel was never completely forgotten. (38) D. Missions in the Dark Ages. 1. Irish Missionaries. To Scotland, France, Switzerland. Independent of Roman domination. 2. Conversion of England. Britons forced into Wales. (42) About in 590 Benediction monk found 3 anglosaxon boys for sale in marketplace. Asjed to be sent to them as missionary. Became Pope Gregory the Great. (44) Sent missionary, Augustine of Canterbury. Missionary work in England. King converted. Sent the "Apostle to North Germany,"||08.8 Mb||47:06
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 35||[+] Missionaries in the Dark Ages. (03) 3. Boniface the Apostle to Germany. (05) Tribes outside the Roman Empire reached by missionaries from England. (06) Missionary Boniface (680-) North of Roman Empire. Failed. Returned to northern Germany then North Holand. Monastery at Fulva. "The Word of God abides forever." (17) 4. Conversion of Scandanavia. (19) 5. Conversion of the Slavs and Hungarians. Constantinope became Greek. (24) Two rival missionaries. Roman and Greek. (27) 6. The Khazars. Border between Asia and Europe. Established Kingdom. abt 700 AD looked for a religion. Chose Jewish religion. Constantinople and Russians attacked conquered 900 AD. Leading Jews Fled to Spain. (36) E. Four Ecumenical Councils. 1. Nature of an Ecumenical Council. (40) Jerusalem Council Acts 15. Very few Christians follow the judgment of that council. An Ecumenical council was a wise course at the time, but not binding to all christians for all time. (47) McSorley, An Outline of the History of the Church by Centuries p. 1035: List of 20 Ecumenical councils. (49) First Four Councils accepted by protestants. Not because they decided them, but that the councils expressed important teachings of the Bible.||09.5 Mb||50:46
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 36||[++] E. Four Ecumenical Councils (Cont). 2. The Great importance of the First Four Ecumenical Councils. (03) 3. The lesser importance of the next four Ecumenical Councils . (07) 4. Fifth Council 553. Continuation of work of Fourth. Attempts of Monophysites to get back some support. (12) proposed to condemn 3 orthodox men to please the Monophysites. Rome didn't like the decision. (16) 5. Sixth Ecumenical council 680 AD. Concerned Monophysite ideas. Asserted "One Will" of Jesus Christ. But Rome insisted on two wills (human and divine). Council condemns all who hold to concept of One Will. (20) Anathematized Honorius who taught that. (26) 6. Iconoclastic Controversy. Reaction to Muslim rejection of graven images. (31) 7. 7th Ecumenical Council in Nicaea 787. Strong stand against the iconolasts. It's proper to venerate images. Not worship of the image themselves. 8. The Caroline books. Charlemagne 787. Called council in 794 in Frankfort. Books as written by Charlemagne. McSorley says written by a captain in his name. Rejects image worship. Almost protestant. Proper use of images is acceptable. Written as a protest against the 7th council. (37) 9. Filioque Dispute. Schaff: Resulted in a 1000 year separation between Eastern and Western Church. the Spirit "proceeds from the Father and from the Son." (40) 10. The Eighth Ecumenical Council (869). The poorest of the ecumenical councils. Protestants accept the first Four Councils; Greek and Latin Churches accept the First seven councils. Eighth not accepted by the Greek. Condemned Frodius who condemned the conclusion of the 7th Council. (45) Recent claims that Frodius did not do this.||08.6 Mb||46:34
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 37||[++] Review of Councils. Clearer methods of wording, not new
doctrines. (01:20) Serious Monophysite division. 5th Ecumenical council
condemned some previous leaders, with resulting unhappiness. (03:27)
Monophysites say Jesus Christ in addition to being one person has one
nature, neither God nor human. Persian menace replaced by Mohammedan
menace. Only one will. (04:42) Q: Why should divisions among true
Christians over an interpretation on a religious point cause a
difference in their loyalty? It should not, but sin being what it is,
it does. Irritation over lesser points. People do get more irritated
over those who are near to them but differ a little than over those who
differ on basic matters. (06:01) I know people who can recognize
an Arminian three blocks away but can walk right up to a modernist and
put their arm around him and not recognize anything wrong. (07:51) In
the East, terrible consequences to this day of the fights between
Nestorians and Monophysites. Weakened the Empire, Nestorian missionary
work across Asia, Monophysites in Egypt cut off from the church made it
easy for the Mohammedans to conquer Africa. Especially sad when the
disputes concern points that we can't really understand or explain.
(09:32) Monothelite Controversy: 680 Decision: Christ has two
wills, a human and divine will (contra. Monophysites). (09:54)
Honorius started this. Honorius said we recognize one will. He was
wrong in this to please the Monophysites. All following Bishops of Rome
condemned him for this. Ecumenical Council of 680 explicitly condemned
"The wickedness of Honorius". (11:45) 1901 Coronation of new King
after Victoria. Bible had to include Apocrypha. Illustration of how a
habit can persist when the details have changed. Example of student
body size in 1932. (17:50) Seventh Council. The Iconoclastic
controversy. (18:00) These controversies typically arose in the East.
West typically not so concerned about the controversies. more
practical, and sought to know what Scripture said, and stood on it.
More disturbed about practical matters such as Pelagianism, but on
matters of metaphysical interpretations—the Person of Christ and so
on—the West was willing to take the clear teaching of Scripture and
stand on it, whereas the East wanted to understand it and got off onto
heresies. In the East once a matter was settled in a council, the
opposition would continue in the East. (19:02) Iconoclastic
Controversy. People in the East were right, but went to too great an
extreme. Should there be images or pictures in the Church. The proper
answer: it depends on what use you make of it. Tendency to worship the
image rather than what it depicts. (20:10) Example: picture of
Christ in a Christian college. Look full in his wonderful face. The
serpent in the wilderness. Problem: weakness of human nature. (22:51)
Extreme reactions. No reason to go to the extreme of banishing these
pictures and symbols. Realizing the danger but also the blessing we can
get. (23:48) The Iconoclasts, accused by Mohammedans of being idolaters
(many probably were). (25) Worshipping the
Bible. Give honor to the Bible can go to an extreme, making it an
object of worship. 7th Council may have gone a bit too far. The
Caroline books. (27:06) Dispute over the Filioque (= and of
the Son). Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. Inserting
it into the Nicene Creed. Objection may have been more because the
original creed was changed than a doctrinal point. (32:54) 10. 8th
Ecumenical council. A brief time when the Eastern Church wrote to the
West to help, and called an Ecumenical council in 869. Eastern Church
called one 10 years later and took the opposite view.
(34:49) All "ecumenical" councils after "filioque"
were in the West only. (43:08) F. The
Papacy to 1000 AD. 1. Uniqueness of Leo
I the Great (450) and Gregory I the Great (600). (46:00) 2. Vigilius
537-555. Not particularly important. Lacking in courage. (43:53) 3.
Gregory I (590-604) Established the Benedictines. (49:20) Important for
Missionary work to England. England became most loyal to the Pope than
any other nation, for 1000 years. Relation to Bishop of Constantinople,
seat of the Emperor.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 38||[++] 3. Gregory I. (02) a. His background b. Relation with Constantinople. Asserted that Bishops of Rome, Antioch, Alexandria and Constantinople are all heads in their areas and there is no supreme universal bishop. (06) An error (called the great blot): Gregory congratulated a usurping emperor who murdered his predecessor Morris. (11) c. The mission to England. (previously discussed) (13) d. Purgatory. First to stress purgatory. (15) The Mass (= dismissal). (20) Pastassius Adversis book "The Body and Blood of the Lord" (27) Transsubstantiation. (30) Saints; Prayer to saints. 4. Honorius I. 625-638. Advocated heresy. Christ had one will, not two. 5. Papacy in the 8th C. a. The Lombards. Germanic. Spread through Italy. in 7th C. Long beards = Lombards. Viewed as wild barbarians.Established and settled by 8th C. (39) d. Relations with France.(40) Donation of Peppin. (42) Charlemagne ended Lombard power in Italy. (43) c. Leo III. (45) d. Crowning of Charlemagne 800 AD. First emperor in West since 476. Holy Roman Empire. 6. Formosus and Stephen VI.||08.8 Mb||47:42
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 39||[++] (03) 6. Formosus (891-896) and Stephen VI. (05) Ability an ambition. Stephen put Formosus on trial with his corpse. Body thrown into the Tiber. Annuled his decrees. (08) "Shortly afterward, Stephen was friendless." Stephen was strangled. (10) XI. The Tenth Century: The Darkest Age. Rome given over to factions. (14) John XII. (19) Bryce History of the Holy Roman Empire. Religious ruler side-by-side with the Secular ruler. Emperors of Germany + Bishop of Rome. (24) Third force: Cluny Reform 10th Century. Cluny Monastery formed in France. Emporer + Cluny worked together to get man of high moral character. (25) Reform Papacy. (26) Who is most important? Emperor or Pope? 999 AD. Pope Gerbert (Sylvester II). Possible author of criticism of Papacy at Synod in Orleans in 991 in Orleans. Shows the low state of the Papacy. "Are there indeed any bold enough to maintain that the priest of the Lord over all the world are to take their law from monsters of guilt like these: men branded with ignomy, illiterate alike of things human and divine?" [Schapf History of the Christian Church Vol IV] (38) D. The Rise of Islam. 1. Why we consider Islam in this course? a. Because it arose in a territory that was generally Christian. b. Because it could (arguably) be viewed as a Christian heresy rather than a separate religion. (45) 2. The Founder Mohammed. (51) A tremendous orator.||09.7 Mb||52:37
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 40||No Audio Available||xx Mb||---
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 41||[+] X 12th Century (Contd). F. The first century of Scholasticism. 1. Genral remarks on Scholasticism. Applies to Christian scholarship between 1100-1400. (03) 2. Anselm. First properly to be called scholastic. Once Archbishop of Canterbury. Book: "Qui Deus Homo?" "Why God-Man?" What was the reason for the incarnation? (06) Christ a ransom to Satan? Anselm: It is to satisfy God's wrath. Satan has no right to demand a ransom. (15) 3. Abelard. Brilliant mind. If living today he might be a great liberal. Book "Yes and No" show apparently contradicting statements among the Church Fathers. (17) Generally raised doubt rather than increase faith. 4. Peter the Lombard. Perhaps greatest theologian of 12th C. A great systematizer. (21) Father of systematic theology in the Catholic Church (Superceded by Aquias) Systematic Theology: "Four books of Sentences" (24) XII. Thirteenth Century: The Papacy Dominant. Church has more power than ever before. (26) Popes more power over secular leaders. A. The Papists. (28) 1. Innocent III. The most powerful pope in century. Comes at the summit of a century and a half. Reformed church in France and Poland. Called Council, First to use transsubstantiation. (37) Procedures in electing popes, (40) 2. St. Celestine V. Pope in 1294 after 2 year inter-regnum and struggle. "Let us get a godly hermit." (43) Pius but not qualified. Gullible. (45) Wanted to resign. Followed by Celestine.||09.5 Mb||51:46
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 42||[+] review. 11th C. Hildebrand. Helped to revive the Papacy. Holy Roman Empire combined Church and State. 13th C. Century of greatest power of Papacy. Pope Interfered with English affairs. King John turned over England to the Pope. Innocent III interfered with most states in Europe. (10) B. Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229). (14) A sort of Manicheanism Catharists around Albi in S. France. Physical bad Spiritual good. Body bad. (16) Opposed to church. The Perfected had attained perfection. Southern third of France largely went to Albigensians. (17) Innocent III started crusade against them. Raymond. Many towns were seized and people killed. From being most cultivated areas became a desert. Albigensian movement destroyed. (25) Waldensians. Not much known. Perhaps much like Protestant beliefs. (30) C. Mendicant Orders. 1. General Remarks. Important development in monasticism. Monastics: get away from the world and develop the spiritual life. (35) Mendicants: Intention to be out in the world and having an effect upon it. (42) Two men involved:2. St. Dominic (1170-1221). Passion to learn and then spread it. Convert by persuasion and evidence. (45) 3. The Dominicans "Order of Preachers" 1215 asked Pope to establish order. (47) Right to take confessions, etc. much like priests but answerable to the Pope. Established to preach and root out heresy. Later leaders in charge of the inquisition.||09.4 Mb||51:03
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 43||[++] Mendicant Orders. 2. Dominic Gutzmann (St. Dominic) 3. The Dominicans. 4. Francis Bernadone 1182-1226. (Francis of Assisi). Natural Ability. Originality. (04) Son of Wealthy man. Contrast between wealthy ecclesiastics and poor people. (06) "Entered into marriage with poverty." Many monks living in wealth claiming to be in poverty, but monestary was wealthy. (11) 1210 went to the Pope to start an order. Wanted people in his order to work and try to help others. (14) Peter DeContana took over and Introduced rules for order. (16) Francis' will. Urged that not only the members but the order should live in poverty. (18) Declared a saint 2 years after death. (19) Both Dominican and Franciscan monks went out into the world rather than remain cloistered. Dominicans to teach the truth and make it effective in the people; Fransciscans to help people, be kind to them, be self-sacrificing. The Mendicant orders, or the Friars. The leading "poor" orders. (21) 5. Franciscans. Pope changed Dominicans into the directors of the inquisition. Fransciscans into carrying out Pope's and Churches orders. (24) "The order shall not own anything, but gifts could be given to the Pope to be used for the benefit of the order." Many expensive monestaries. John XXII returned the property to the order. (26) The Conventuals. The Order of the Conventual Franciscans and the Order of the Observant Fransciscans. O.S.M. "Order of the Lesser Brothers" (28) Capuchans. Bearded. Third general "aposticized", i.e. became a protestant. (31) Martin Luther gave a clear expression of previously understood concepts. (33) 6. The Tertiaries. The related orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans. Franciscan sisters. Dominican sisters. Tertiary is laymen who are interested in the order. (37) 7. Augustinians, Pre-Monstrants and the Carmelites. Rule of St. Augustine. Carmelites claimed to go back to Elijah. (42) 8. Varying conditions of the Friars. Many became professors in universities under instructions from the orders. (49) Inevitable decline over time -- begging friars.||09.7 Mb||51:49
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 44||[++] Pageant of the Popes by John Farrow. XII. 11th Century. A. Political Events. William the Conquerer 1066. 2. France in Feudal system. (05) 3. Germany and Italy. Italy: Remnants of HRE. Lombards. Up to 1870 Italy divided into small petty tyrants. Theoretically part of HRE. (08) Germany: Feudal. 5 or 6 main Dukedoms with an elected head. Otto I, Duke of Saxony. (11) Established pope. Crowned by Bishop of Rome as emperor of HRE. (14) 4. The Eastern Empire. Emperor's power reduced by Muslims. B. The Papacy. (09) John Greshom bought the papacy. Gregory VI. "The supreme simony of all time." (Simony -- sale of church offices). (23) what brought the papacy out of the depths. Never again did papacy fall to that depthl of the 10th century because of the influence of the German emperors. (25) Once installed Gregory began reform. Assisted by benedictine Hildebrand. 1. Benedict IX. Ended with 3 popes at one time (Benedict IX, Sylvester III an intruded, himself Gregory VI). Declared all three invalid and then (as emperor) called for election of new Pope. (30) Eventually Benedict murdered. 2. Renewed German intervention. German emperor appointed new pope, (32) Hildebrand. Connected with the Cluny reform. Bruno, bishop in Germany dressed in rags entered into Rome and sought Papacy. WIth pressure of the armies, Rome confirmed his election. (37) Bruno (Leo IX (1049-1054) chose Hildebrand as his financier and advisor. 3. Hildebrand (Gregory VII). Finally in 1073 (after 5 popes, with Hildebrand the actual moving force) Hildebrand became pope as Gregory VII. The Gregorian Reforms. (42) 4. Canoffa. A castle in the alps. HRE king Henry IV charged and excommunicated. Pilgrim to Rome to get excommunication removed. Met at Canoffa. (46) Stood barefoot 3 days then received by Gregory. Then put down the rebellion. Eventually forced Gregory to flee Rome where he died in exile. (50) C. Separation from the Eastern Church (1054). Leo IX was pope.||10.3 Mb||56:07
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 45||[++] (04) D. The Triumph of superstition. Veneration of Votaries in East. (08) 1. Transsubstantiation. Presence of Christ. The greatest subject of controversy at time of reformation. (13 ) Luther: The Very body and blood of Christ are in and around the elements.l Calvin: A Real Spiritual Presence. (18) Gradual development. (19) Presented in book on transsubstantiation by Paschasius Radbertus in 831, De Corpore et Sanguine Domini. (22) Berringer (1000-1088) scholar, monk, preacher who spoke against the view. Created great sensation. (23) Lanfranc (later archibishop of Canterbury) condemned. (26) Recante at Rome but repudiated his recantation on return to France. Hildebrand when Pope summoned him to Rome again. 1079 Council. Recanted again. (34) X. 12th Century. A. The Papacy.1. The General situation. Adrian IV. Only English Pope. (38) urged King Henry II to conquer Ireland. (39) 2. Investiture Controversy. How does a man become a bishop? Can the King appoint bishop? (41) 3. Thomas a-Becket. Relations between the Kings of England and the Pope. Who would be head of the Church of England? (48) Thomas Murdered. King went through repentance. Thomas Made great saint of England.||09.6 Mb||51:55
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 46||[++] Investiture controversy continued. (03) B. Bernard of Clairvaux. (-1153) One of the great Christians of all of Church History. Formed a monestary at Clairvaux. (06) Wrote many hymns. Inspired "O Sacred head now Wounded.", " Jesus the Very Though of Thee." "Jesus Our Joy of Loving Hearts." (11) C. The Crusades. Began in 1095, Ended 1291. (16) Seljuk muslims took over Palestine, but intolerant of Christian pilgrims there. (17) Urban II called for a Crusade to put end to interference of pilgrims. (18) Peter the Hermit. (20) Bernard of Clairvaux promoted 2nd Crusade. (23) Knights Templar. D. Councils in 12th C. Lateran councils. Clerical ceilibacy (28) 1139 council (probably) ruled to exclude all but Cardinals from participating in Papal elections. (29) Cardinal means one of the clergy of Rome. (36) E. Independent Religious Movements. 1. Cachathari (Albigensians). May be a remnant of Manicheanism. Heretical. Dualism between physical and spiritual. (40) 2. Waldensians. Peter Waldo. The poor men of Lyon. (42) Went to Lateran council 1179 with a Bible translation. Rejected and forbadden to preach. Lived in mountains of Northern Italy. During the Reformation contacted Luther. Pope attacked them until Oliver Cromwell wrote to the Pope to stop, which he did. Continue to present. F. First century of Scholasticism. 1. General Remarks. School 1100-1400 study nature of Universe and relation to Christianity.||09.7 Mb||52:42
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 47||[++] (02) The Bare-footed Friar. (08) St. Peter's in Rome. Statues of founders of orders. Friars introduced ecclesiastics into education. (14) D. The Inquisition. Began as a measure against the Albergensians. (19) The victim could not hear the accusers. Could not have lawyers or call witnesses. (23) E. Scholars of the 13th C. All Franciscans or Dominicans. (26) 1. Roger Bacon 1214-1294. England. Moved to Paris. Far ahead of his time. Experimental method and scientific studies. Looked on as a renegade. Francis Bacon 400 years later (founder of the experimental method). (32) 2. Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great) 1193-1250. Germany. (34) 3. Thomas Aquinas (Albertus Magnus student) 1225-1274. Dominican. The great Doctor. (41) 4. Bonaventure 1221-1274. Scholar, thinker, practical man. Head of Franciscan Order.(43) Wrote commentary on Peter Lombard's Book of Sentences. Eventually Aquinas' works displaced Lombard's work. (44) 5. Duns Scotus. Scotland. 1270-1308. Denied that many doctrines could be proved by reason. Raised many questions. Word "dunce" comes from him, one of the greatest acumen in history. Schapf: "With his death the disintegration of Scholasticism began." (48) All of Aristotle's works were available in this century. Translated into Latin and Arabic.||09.0 Mb||49:00
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 48||[++] (Review) (03) XIV 13th Century "The Most Christian Century." High of the Middle Ages. (04) 1. The Papacy more dominent in this century. (08) Nestore (??) summary of 1200s. "All in all excommunications were launched on more then ten occasions in this Century. And at least sixteen were deposed or threatened." So-called Crusade and then the Inquisition. Effectively ended Albergensians. (14) 2. Rise of the Friars. 3. Inquisition. No appeal from Inquisition. (25) 4. Scholarship. Far in advanced of anything before. Thomas Aquinis. (27) Luther felt Aristotle had a bad influence on this day. (30) The public resists advances: Metric vs. English systems of measurement.(31) Similarly the Trinity. And Luther salvation by faith alone. Crusades. Had little effect on the present day. (34) XII. The 14th Century. Michener, The Source (History of Palestine). Has 2 chapters on the crusades. Vivid picture of the end of the crusades. (36) Nestore: "Painful contrast with the previous century." (37) A. Beginning of Babylonian Captivity. Boniface IX captured Pope and took control of the Papacy. Succeeded by Clement V, a Frenchman. Moved to Avignon. "The Babylonian Captivity" Dante Divine Comedy put Bonifice VIII in Hell. (43) B. The Destruction of the Templars. Templars half monk half soldier. Ivanhoe. Phillip of France demanded they be investigated. Clement seized and tortured to confess attacking Christ, moral crimes, etc. (46) Pope (Clement V) ordered them to be disbanded. Probably done to seize their property. Grand Master publically convicted. Recanted but taken to Notre Dame and burned publically. Pope and King died within a year. The English "Inner Temple" was a property seized from the Templars.||09.0 Mb||48:36
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 49||[++] The second pope of the Babylonian Captivity John XXII. Under control of King of France. (03) LIved for 18 years to age 90. Vatican has 59 volumes of his Bulls. Declared authority over emperor of Germany. (09) 1880 declaration of papal infallability Prof Derringer excommunicated for refusing to agree that the popes were infallable. (10) Special problems maintaining infallability with John XXII. (15) Better Financial manager than previous Pope. Charged high fees for symbols of office. Personal fortune large at his death. (17) D. Popes of the rest of the Babylonian Captivity. Pope build a large palace. Petarch described the city as one vast brothel. (19) Novel by Bulwer-Lytton, "The Last Days of Pompeii" (21) John Wycliffe represented King Edward III to Avignon got first-hand look at Avignon.(22) St. Bridgette claimed to have visions and urged Pope to go back to Rome. St. Katherine of Sienna also. Moved back to Rome in 1378. (23) E. Beginning of the great schism. After return to Rome. (25) Under pressure from public to elect an Italian pope. Urban VI. Lacked tact. Western Schism? Caused schism, went back to Avignon and elected another Pope (Clement VII called the Antipope). (29) some cardinals got together and set a third pope.(35) E. Raymond Lull 1232-1315. Missionary to the Moslems. Learned Arabic and went to Egypt. Put in prison. Returned to Europe to get chairs in Hebrew and Arabic establshed in Europe. Returned to Egypt. Attacked and left for dead. Returned to Europe. In late life returned to Egypt, and stoned to death.||08.7 Mb||47:06
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 50||[++] XV 14th Century Raymond Lull. Scholastics. In decline. (02) Conflict between the claims of the Pope and the Claims of the Emperor. Came to a head in John XXII. Marsilius of Padua. Rector of U. Paris. Supported claims of the Emperor. Power belongs to the People, neither Emperor or Church. Condemned in 1327 by Bishop. WIlliam of Occam. English. Supported Emperor. Occam: "Compendium of the errors of John XXII". H. Spiritual Writers. (10) Imitation of Christ by Thomas a-Kempis. Emphasis on personal love of Christ. (12) Grooce formed "Brothers of the Common Light." Not a monastic order. Stress on preaching and training. (16) J. The beginning of National Literature. (18) 1. Dante 1261-1321 (Florence, Italy) Divine Comedy. Beatrice. View of afterlife. Politician in party favored Emperor and opposed to Pope. (24) 2. Petrarch Most cultured man of his age. Laura. Inaugurator of the Italian renaissance. 3. Boccacio (1313-1375). Interested in preserved the ancient classics. (30) The Decameron. Had influence for evil because he made vice attractive. (33) England.4. William Langland (1332-1386) Piers Plowman. (35) 5. Jeffory Chaucer (1340-1400). Canterbury Tales. (42) K. John Wycliffe (1320-1384). Morningstar of the Reformation. Vernacular translation of the Bible. 1380 Wrote "Against the Doctrine of Transsubstantiation." (47) Lollards. Many persecuted.||09.3 Mb||50:08
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 51||[++] K. John Wycliffe (1320-1384) His mind represented a considerable development through the years. (02:30) Luther was the great innovator in the Reformation. Calvin was a second-generation reformer. Came into an established system which he vastly developed. A great scholar. Luther a first-generation reformer who made a great change in established system. Chaucer 3-4 years after Wycliffe's death. (11:23) 1380-1410. XIII 15th Century. Jubilee on Centennary. Held jubilees at the beginning of a new century. 1300 Bonifice VIII declared a jubilee with indulgences. Very successful. (13:53) A. The Problem of the Papal Schism. Avignon popes. (17:33) 1. The Papal System. English supported the Roman pope. (20:44) All popes promised to do everything possible to heal the schism. All meant for the others to resign. 2. The Spread of Heresy (people who refused to acknowledge the authority of the Church). 3. The widespread corruption of the church. (22:30/27:20) B. The Council of Pisa 1409. 14 Cardinals 10 Archbishops, 79 Bishops and other religious leaders united and called the two popes to appear. Roman Pope Gregory, Avignon Pope Benedict. Neither appeared. Council declared the popes aposticized. Elected another pope. (30:25) Thus 3 popes instead of 2. Called himself John XXIII. Died in less than 2 years. (33:45) C. John Huss 1369-1415. King Richard II married daughter of Czech king. (35:19) In Czechia was John Huss, an able preacher, active in University of Prague. Preached Wycliff's views. Great contributions to the Czechish language. (38:30) Bohemia stood behind Huss. German students opposed Huss, left and formed Leipzig University. Condemned. (40:23) Hess condemned, and the best soldiers of Europe attacked. Bohemian peasants defended against them and chased them away. (41:24) Luther first against Huss, but later took a stand with him (a hundred years later). (41:50) D. Corruption of the Church. Result of Pisa. Need new council and deal with Heresy (Huss/Wycliff). (44:00) D. Council of Constance. Most important council since the first four. (45:02) 1. The Calling of the Council. John XXIII called council of Constance, Germany. 1414-1418. Lasted 4 years. (49:40) Problem of pluralism (one person in multiple church offices), immoral life, simony (payment for benefits). Burned John Huss at the stake. Wycliffe's bones dug up and burned and scattered on the river.||09.8 Mb||51:52
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 52||[++] D. 1. Calling of the Council. Conciliar movement. (03) Battle of EIsenport (05) Sigismund German Emperor got John XXIII (Pisa Pope) to get the thing going. Able but unscrupulous and brutal. A pirate as a youth. (13) 2. Organization of the Council. Decided to vote by nation rather than every bishop. Italy, France, Germany, England. Equal votes. Met separately. When majority of nations agreed, then met together to ratify. (16) 3. The purposes of the Council. a. Reform of the church. Landholdings. Pluralism. Absenteeism. Nepotism. (23) b. The problem of heresy. Wycliffe & Huss. (26) c. Healing of the schism. (27) 4. The Council's Actions regarding Heresy. Hess summoned under safe conduct. Council said that a promise given to a heretic was not binding. (34) Also condemned John Wycliff. His body was disinterred burned and ashes thrown in a river. Huss should be burned for his heresy. Jerome of Prague, a companion also given safe journey and also burned a year later. Sang Easter Hymn Hail Festal Day as he died. (40) Poggio Bracciolini. Schapf quotes a letter Poggio sent letter about how Jerome defended himself. "It is wonderful to see with what eloquence he spoke...." (45) Hussites continued in control of Chechia until 1629. Then hunted down and wiped out. (49) 5. Council's actions regarding the Schism.||09.7 Mb||51:54
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 53||[+] (03) John XXIII deposed on ground of immorality, murder. (15) b. The Roman Pope (Successor to the Roman line) Gregory XII. Abdicated at the Council at demand of the council (1415). c. Benedict XIII. Pope of the Avignon line. Fled to Spain. Lived in a castle until his death in a few years. (36) Roman Polonna family had a cardinal with a reputation for tact. Became pope Martin V. 6. Election of a new Pope. (32) 7. The question of reform. Little reform was done. Not done until Council of Trent. (36) e. The Failure of the conciliar movement. It did restore the prestige of the papacy. But did not make the Pope subject to the council. (39) McSorley on Martin V. (46) Changed final ruling of constance to make Pope superior to the Councils.||08.8 Mb||47:12
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 54||[++] Review: e. The Failure of the conciliar movement.
1. Actions of the Council of
Constance. a. Its claims. The Council is the supreme authority and all
popes are subject to it. (03:35) b. Pope had to recognize the
of the council for a time. Martin V solemnly agreed to do that. But
results not lasting. (06:40) 2. Council of
Basel-Ferrara-Florence. (1431-1449) (10:32) a. Calling of the council
at Basil by Martin V, who died before it got under way. Successor
Eugenius IV. Slow to get underway. Aeneas Sylvius secretary to
one of the cardinals. Attack on Czechia failed at this time. Pope
transferred the synod to
Bologna. Council claimed the pope had no authority. So Eugenius
it legitimate and sent legates. (16:10) c. Compromise with the
Bohemians. Failed to conquer
the Bohemians (Czechs). Called for attendance at the council with safe
Made compromise that split the delegation. (19:35) d. The situation in
Constantinople. Rise of Islam. Eastern empire reduced. One crusade
attacked leaders of Constantinople. Around 1300s the Ottoman Turks grew
and took most of Asia Minor, bypassing Constantinople. (23:16) e.
Coming of the Greeks. Possibility of reuniting
East and West. Decided to do all negotiating with the Pope. Moved the
Ferrara. 700 reps of Greek church. (25:30) f. Apparent success at
1438-1445. Met with Greek leaders. Apparent success in Ferrari (moved
to Florence). Compromise on filioque. Pope supreme. Articles signed
July 5. (30:30) g.
Rejection in Constantinople. Leaders hooted down by the people.
Council of Florence. Denounced by Patriarchs of Jerusalem, Antioch and
Alexanria. Six months later the Muslims broke through and
Constantinople. The Eastern church appointed new pope and repudiated
agreement. (32:50) h. Continued Conciliarism at Basil. 1437
council declared Papal
bull null and void and summon Eugenius to appear. But generally
ignored. (35:45) Elected another pope. Duke
of Savoy Felix V. But most went back to Rome. (37:05) j. end of Council
Basil. Losing supporters. In end petered out. 1453 Constantinople
conquered by Muslims. (39:25) 3. Later state of Conciliarism. 100 years
later a papal council found that the council has no authority except as
a Pope gives it to them. Conciliarism died out. (41:06) F. The Strengthened Papacy.
(44:00) G. The Humanists.
Those who are interested in the history of Human civilization. Interest
in ancient Greek and Roman cultures and early Greek manuscripts.
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 55||[+] (05) After Council of Constance the popes managed to get away from its decisions and assert papal supremacy. (06)15th Century. F. Strengthened papacy. Broke the power of the Council. (08) G. The Humanists. Those who were interested in the development of human spirit and human wisdom that were discovered by the Greeks and Romans. (09) Looking for Latin and Greek Mss. Paul of Constantinople 1452 Brought MSS west from Constantinople. (11) Some humanists thought only human things were of importance. (12) Paggio Bracciolini's writing of Jerome's trial and martyrdom. Admired as a man, but took no stance. Humanists prominent in Papal Court. (13) Nicholas VI first of the humanist popes. Vatican like a court of brilliant readers and prominent humanists. Paggio apostolic secretary under the Pope. Lorenzo Valla attacked Christian faith and religious life. Criticized text of Vulgate. Set up the Donation of Constantine giving the pope Italy and showed that it was a forgery. (17) Great students of Greek and Latin but morally questionable and profligate life. All apostolic secretaries. (19) Pico family in Italy. Pico della Mirandola a earnest Christian. So not all humanists were not of high character. Humanism great harm but also great good done. Go back to original languages. (23) Preparation of humanism led to the Reformation. (26) H. The Spanish Inquisition. Begun by Papal authority. Ferdinand of Aragon. (29) Political problem of Jews in Spain. Efforts to convert to Christianity. (32) Forcible conversion. Directed against Maranos, Jews nominally converted to Christianity. (37) Continued until 1835. (38) In process rooted out Protestantism out of Spain. Emperor Charles V. also King of Spain. Protestant soldiers. 1492 all Jews ordered to leave Spain. Many went to Turkish empire. (48) Calistis III 1455-1458. appointed Rodrigo Borge (a Spanish family) as Cardinal. Later became pope.||09.3 Mb||50:19
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 56||[+] J. Rodrigo Borge. Spaniard. (05) Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503). (12) Papal State. Involved in local Italian politics. City of Florence. Father of Lucrezia Borgia. Tried to end control of the di Medicis. Stabbed Lorenzo and brother in a church service. Party to a conspiracy. No evidence that the pope knew of this. But he was the ringeader. (14) Each of these Medicis had sons who became popes. (15) Sistine Chapel. Built by Sixtus IV (1471-1484). (21) 4. Innocent VIII (1484-1492) 5.Rodrigo Borge, Alexander VI (1492-1503) Bribed to get papacy. Moral disqualifications. Strong man, able man, one of themost wicked in his family at the time. (25) Borgia passed into literature for murder, poisoning. No way to know truth. (29) Son Caesar Borgia. (31) Macchiavelli studied Caesar Borgia's work and effectiveness. (34) "If only someone like Caesar Borgia would take control." (34) Wrote The Prince based on what he saw from Caesar Borgia. (42) K. The Italian Renaissance. Italian art reached a height never surpassed. (50) Division of South America between Portugese and Spanish.||09.5 Mb||51:40
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 57||[++] L. Geronimo Savonarola 1452-1498. Some say the greatest preacher in the Middle Ages. Close student of Bible. Disturbed by the great sin of the Nation. (11) Great influence in Florence. Alexader VI incensed because Savonarola talked against the corruption in the Papal court. (15) Tortured, strangled and burned. Luther thought highly of him. (18) Englishman John Colet studied in Florence, then went to England. Friend of Erasmus. Colet's enthusiasm for Scripture had influence on Erasmus. Erasmus printed the first Greek New Testament. XIII. Beginning of 16th C -- the eve of the Reformation. (27) Reformation 1517. Corruption of Church realized for 3 centuries. Papacy had no interest in reform. Borge pope until 1503. (35) 1. Julius II -1513. Julius II led army to conquer N. Italy. Satire "Julius excluded from heaven." Possibly written by Erasmus. (40) 2. Leo X (1513-1521). Cardinal when age 14. Pleasant fellow. Not a good manager. (45) Luther addressed Leo as a "sheep in the midst of lions" (46) B. Erasmus. Effect of Erasmus may have saved the Reformation. Wrote "In Praise of Folly." Praised popes, arch-bishops, priests who did such foolish things. (49) Erasmus prepared the way for great change, but he would be unable to do it himself. Always looking out for his own interests.||09.6 Mb||51:03
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 58||[+] (03) Never have literary men had the fame of Erasmus and Voltaire. Not famous in any area other than writing. FIrst printed edition of Greek NT. Invented some missing chapters. Not in any greek MSS. The Basis for the Textus Receptus. (09) C. Corruptions of the Church. (15) Cardinal Woolsey (18)) D. Superstitious additions from the Middle Ages. 1. Maryiolatry. 2. Worship of Saints (21) 3. Worship of Relics. (22) 4. The Mass. "A re-inactment of the sacrifice of Christ." Easy for religion to turn into magic. (27) Magic = try to compel God to do what we want. (29) E. Claims of Ecclesiastical authority. 1. Priest a mediary between us and God. (34) 2. Indulgences. (41) F. The Monastic Orders. Corruption. (45) H. THe Spiritual Situation. Many in Europe knew the Gospel and put their faith in Christ. (49) Michaelangelo. Inquisition wiped out reformation in Southern Europe.||09.6 Mb||51:13
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 59||[+] 5. The diet at Nurenberg. Adrian V was not an Italian. Worked to reform the church. (07) 6. The spread of Luther's teaching. a. Publication. Books widely spread.(16) c. Imperial cities. Magdeborg. ╔ gap ╔ ((20) Magdeborg became a thoroughly protestant city. Three cities of the Empire. b. The Controversies. (22) Duke George opposed to Luther. Henry VIII of England. wrote book on the Seven Sacraments. Sent to Pope, got the title "Defender of the Faith" Luther attacked. Later apologized. (24) G. The present war 1524-1525. Peasant uprisings. Luther wrote and urged Lords to treat the peasants better. 1. Luther's atitude toward the present trouble. (29) 2. Rise and fall of the rebellion. No organized group. (32) Phillip of Hesse. (34) 3. Luther's Declaration. Little difference between teachings of Luther and of Calvin in theology as a whole. 1. Exhorted Nobles to have friendly attitude toward peasants. 2. Spoke out against rioting and destruction. (39) Order was proper. Brutality should not be tolerated. H. Luther's Marriage. Grisar 7 Volumes on Luther. 1. His attitude. Declared he would not marry -- because he expected to be martyred. (51) But felt that vows of celibacy were wrong. Catherine von Born. (52) 3. His sudden marriage. (54) 4. His marriage life. Katherine Good common sense. Happy home. J. Political events 1525-1529. (56) 1. Accession of Clement VII.||10.7 Mb||58:17
|Pre-Reformation Church History (1968) 60||[+] 2. The Emperor Charles of Spain's trouble. Clement VII took actions against Charles. Charles moved into Italy. Attacked Rome in 1527. (07) 3. Diet of Speyers. a. 1526 Unanimous action. Every separate section should do as he should answer to God and to the Emperor. This was interpeted that each rule should make his own decision regarding Lutheranism. (10) 1529. Edict of Worms must be enforced. c. The protest. Those who protested this decision were called protestants. [11:27 next lecture]. K. Luther and Erasmus. (16) 1. Erasmus' early attitude. Would back up if any opposition. (21) 1524 wrote tract: "A Conversation on the Freedom of the Will." Luther goes too far in issue of freedom of will. December 1525: Luther wrote an answer "The bondage of the Will". Goes farther than Calvin on bondage of the will. (24) 4. Erasmus' answer March 1526. After this Luther no longer viewed as a follower of Erasmus. (28) L. The Marburg Colloquy. 1529. Capital of Hesse. a. Idea of Phillip of Hesse. (37) The consubstantiation issue. Luther argued that he could not work with Zwingli because of this. LUrher and Zwingli met and made 15 statements of the Faith. on 1/2 of the 15 they disagreed. Sacramentarians = belief that the sacraments are a symbol. (44) Result is that Zwingli and Luther forces did not join together militarily. Concluding remark "I at one time taught in a different seminary where the attitude seemed to be 'The Reformed Faith has a thousand points in it, and every one is just as important as every other. And if you make compromise on any one you made compromise on all.' And I knew people who spot an armenian three blocks away, but could walk right up to a modernist and never see anything wrong, as far as i could see. I see it as a danger when we give maximum importance to secondary points, even when they are vital things, we are apt to give too little importance to the major things. e. the Result The Protestant world was split in two: Lutheran and Reformed, and has remained ever since. Originally began with just this one difference. N. The DIet of Augsburg.||10.8 Mb||58:17
The Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute is
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of the complete reliability of the Bible who will:
(1) get training both in Biblical studies and in some other academic discipline, and
(2) use this training to help other Christians deal with the many areas where non-Christian teaching is so dominant today.
We believe that such trained people can be effective in removing many stumbling blocks that keep others from the Gospel.
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